This is a competing continuation of a multi-method longitudinal study of developmental trajectories of reactivity and regulation among cocaine and non-cocaine exposed infants. The original application focused on reactivity and regulation of infants and toddlers at 1, 7, 13, and 24 months of age using both behavioral and autonomic measures. In a competitive supplement, we initiated a 36 and 48 month follow-up to examine the development of self-regulation and autonomic regulation under conditions of mild stress. We also initiated brief home visits at 18, 30, 42, and 54 months of age in order to maintain contact and collect data on continued maternal substance use and reports of children's behavior.
The specific aims of this application are as follows: 1) To complete assessments of ongoing maternal substance use, mediator variables, and self-regulation among cocaine-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed children at 36 and 48 months; 2) To initiate and complete assessments of this sample upon entry into kindergarten on key predictor (maternal cocaine and other substance use), mediating (parenting, infant risk characteristics, caregiving environment), and outcome variables (self-regulation and social competence); 3) To examine if the relationship between maternal substance use and the development of self-regulation and social competence is mediated by maternal parenting behavior, the caregiving environment, or infant risk characteristics; 4) To examine reasons for heterogeneity in regulatory outcomes and social competence among cocaine-exposed and non- cocaine-exposed children. The final sample consists of 220 mother-infant dyads (120 in the cocaine group and 100 in the control group) recruited at birth. Data analyses focuses on examining developmental trajectories of self-regulation as a function of prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances, fetal and neonatal infant risk characteristics, parenting, and the quality of the caregiving environment. It is hypothesized that developmental trajectories of self-regulation from the toddler/preschool period will predict self-regulation and social competence in kindergarten. This study utilizes a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine transactional influences on development and multiple pathways to risk and resilience among substance exposed infants. ? ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-RPIA-H (01))
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Borek, Nicolette T
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State University of New York at Buffalo
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Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela et al. (2015) Prenatal substance exposure and child self-regulation: Pathways to risk and protection. J Exp Child Psychol 137:12-29
Finger, Brent; Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D (2014) Behavior problems among cocaine exposed children: role of physiological regulation and parenting. Neurotoxicol Teratol 42:51-9
Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D; Molnar, Danielle S et al. (2014) Empathic responsivity at 3 years of age in a sample of cocaine-exposed children. Neurotoxicol Teratol 42:1-8
Eiden, Rina D; Coles, Claire D; Schuetze, Pamela et al. (2014) Externalizing behavior problems among polydrug cocaine-exposed children: Indirect pathways via maternal harshness and self-regulation in early childhood. Psychol Addict Behav 28:139-53
Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Colder, Craig R et al. (2014) Prenatal cocaine exposure: the role of cumulative environmental risk and maternal harshness in the development of child internalizing behavior problems in kindergarten. Neurotoxicol Teratol 44:1-10
Veira, Yvette; Finger, Brent; Eiden, Rina D et al. (2014) Child Behavior Problems: Role of Cocaine Use, Parenting and Child Exposure to Violence. Psychol Violence 4:266-280
Molnar, Danielle S; Levitt, Ash; Eiden, Rina Das et al. (2014) Prenatal cocaine exposure and trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in early childhood: examining the role of maternal negative affect. Dev Psychopathol 26:515-28
Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D (2012) Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children. J Appl Dev Psychol 33:282-293
Eiden, Rina D; Granger, Douglas A; Schuetze, Pamela et al. (2011) Child behavior problems among cocaine-exposed toddlers: indirect and interactive effects. Dev Psychopathol 23:539-50
Eiden, Rina D; Leonard, Kenneth E; Colder, Craig R et al. (2011) Anger, hostility, and aggression as predictors of persistent smoking during pregnancy. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 72:926-32

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