A Prospective Study of the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications by Adolescents is in response to current PA-08-127 (previously PA-07-123). It builds on the research team's previous cross-sectional, exploratory research (RO3 DA018272: RO3 DA 018239) focusing on gender differences in the nonmedical use of scheduled, prescription medications (NUPM) among adolescent and young adult populations. In previous exploratory studies,our research team observed notable heterogeneity among nonmedical users, captured by subtypes characterized by: a) either possession of a legal prescription (or not a legal prescription) and b) motivations (self-treating versus sensation-seeking). While all four subtypes are characterized by volition, two NUPM subtypes involve motives to self-treat, while two other NUPM subtypes involve motives related to sensation-seeking. Additionally, NUPM may involve one's own prescription medication or alternatively, someone else's. The study aims are guided by a theoretical model, drawn from Problem Behavior Theory, which depicts the domains of risk that may lead to NUPM and its consequences. A mixed-method design is proposed;the study includes annual, cross-sectional, web-based surveys over five-years and a longitudinal, panel study that includes face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. The study aims to: 1) investigate the prevalence of medical adherence and the four subtypes of NUPM, the co-occurrence among the subtypes of NUPM, and demographic characteristics associated with each type;2) identify common patterns of NUPM behaviors across each drug classification (sleep, stimulant, anxiety/sedative, pain);3) examine the stability/instability of group membership across the 5 points of assessment and the extent to which early trajectories of drug use are associated with substance abuse problems and 4) determine the extent to which the qualitative data converge with quantitative data. Data from this study should be invaluable in planning for new prevention efforts aimed at reducing NUPM among adolescents. Public Health Relevance: The medical and nonmedical use of scheduled prescription medications (e.g. sleep, stimulant, anxiety/sedative, and pain) have increased among adolescents living in the United States, leading to a new set of health risks for this age group. Despite the acknowledged increase in the nonmedical use of prescription medications, relatively little is known about the reasons adolescents engage in this behavior and the negative consequences of their behaviors. The purpose of this study is to advance knowledge about adolescents'medical and nonmedical use of prescription medications with addictive potential in order to better inform prevention efforts.

Public Health Relevance

The medical and nonmedical use of scheduled prescription medications (e.g. sleep, stimulant, anxiety/sedative, and pain) have increased among adolescents living in the United States, leading to a new set of health risks for this age group. Despite the acknowledged increase in the nonmedical use of prescription medications, relatively little is known about the reasons adolescents engage in this behavior and the negative consequences of their behaviors. The purpose of this study is to advance knowledge about adolescents'medical and nonmedical use of prescription medications with addictive potential in order to better inform prevention efforts.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DA024678-05
Application #
8416404
Study Section
Nursing Science: Children and Families Study Section (NSCF)
Program Officer
Obrien, Moira
Project Start
2009-03-15
Project End
2014-12-31
Budget Start
2013-01-01
Budget End
2014-12-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$571,895
Indirect Cost
$197,293
Name
University of Michigan Ann Arbor
Department
Type
Schools of Nursing
DUNS #
073133571
City
Ann Arbor
State
MI
Country
United States
Zip Code
48109
Boyd, Carol J; Cranford, James A; McCabe, Sean Esteban (2016) Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students. J Addict Dis 35:258-265
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; Boyd, Carol J (2016) Early exposure to stimulant medications and substance-related problems: The role of medical and nonmedical contexts. Drug Alcohol Depend 163:55-63
Schepis, Ty S; West, Brady T; Teter, Christian J et al. (2016) Prevalence and correlates of co-ingestion of prescription tranquilizers and other psychoactive substances by U.S. high school seniors: Results from a national survey. Addict Behav 52:8-12
Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Philip T et al. (2016) Diversion of ADHD Stimulants and Victimization Among Adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol 41:786-98
Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Austic, Elizabeth et al. (2015) Opioid use among interscholastic sports participants: an exploratory study from a sample of college students. Res Q Exerc Sport 86:205-11
Boyd, Carol J; Veliz, Philip T; McCabe, Sean Esteban (2015) Adolescents' Use of Medical Marijuana: A Secondary Analysis of Monitoring the Future Data. J Adolesc Health 57:241-4
Veliz, Philip; McCabe, Sean Esteban (2015) Examining Potential Substance Use Disorders Among Former Interscholastic Athletes. Subst Abus 36:400-6
Veliz, Philip Todd; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban (2015) Competitive sport involvement and substance use among adolescents: a nationwide study. Subst Use Misuse 50:156-65
McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Schepis, Ty S et al. (2015) Simultaneous co-ingestion of prescription stimulants, alcohol and other drugs: a multi-cohort national study of US adolescents. Hum Psychopharmacol 30:42-51
Austic, E A; Meier, E A Austic Formerly E A (2015) Peak ages of risk for starting nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Drug Alcohol Depend 152:224-9

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