There is growing recognition of the importance of 'place'on individual risk of disease, although most studies fail to capture the dynamic nature of the risk environment and its effect on the sex trade has been understudied. The Mexico/US border region is undergoing profound alterations in the environment in which sex work takes place, providing a 'natural experiment'through which we can explore the relative contributions of individual and structural factors on HIV transmission. The primary goals of this research are to define social, spatial, and physical factors affecting female sex workers (FSWs) in 2 border cities and determine their relevance to HIV epidemiology, drug use, and access to services. Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez have witnessed escalating community-level violence and, for Cd. Juarez, changes in the location and visibility of the 'red light'district. While migration and cross-border interactions are major influences, the recent global economic downturn is dramatically altering migration patterns. Based on the above, the specific aims of this project are to: 1) assess changes in social influences on the sex work risk environment over time in both cities and their effect on risk behaviors, HIV/STI incidence, and access to services;2) determine the locations where FSWs live, work and engage in other activities and their relationship to risk behaviors, perceptions of violence, and access to services;and 3) determine the extent to which the built environment and other sex work venue characteristics relate to individual-level behaviors and HIV/STI incidence. To meet these aims, we will recruit 600 FSWs (300 per city) and collect sociodemographic, location, and behavioral data through interviews. All will be tested for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia and treated as needed. Follow-up interviews and testing will occur at months 6, 12, and 18. To meet aim 2, we will construct a geographic information system (GIS) of both cities and explore factors in relation to where FSWs live, work, buy/use drugs, and access services. Changing spatial relationships, such as the dispersal of the Cd. Juarez Zona Roja and intra-urban or cross-border mobility, will be analyzed to track patterns of infectious disease spread. We will also conduct in-depth interviews and an activity-travel survey with 30 sex workers per city, stratified by geography and venue (e.g. street, bar, etc.) to create geo-narratives based on time-geographic methods and computer-aided qualitative data analysis in order to explore the impact of recent social, economic, political, and other structural changes on participants'lives. To meet aim 3, field measurements of the built environment and other venue characteristics will be combined with individual-level data to explore their effect on health outcomes. The data collected will provide information vital to reframing HIV and drug use interventions to take into account the structural environment. This project is timely as HIV prevalence is rising along the U.S./Mexico border, presenting a window of opportunity to prevent transition to a generalized epidemic.

Public Health Relevance

Interventions to prevent HIV and reduce related risk activities (e.g. drug use, unprotected sex) in marginalized populations (such as female sex workers (FSWs)) suggest that focusing only on individual behavior change often fails to decrease disease transmission. The proposed study will collect information on various environmental factors that contribute to FSW's risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections, including the location and characteristics of the places in which they work and social influences. Our collaborative study will strengthen HIV/drug use research capacity in Mexico, help us to understand what environmental factors might make someone more likely to participate in risky activities, and will guide future health interventions targeted at the work place and other environmental influences.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DA028692-04
Application #
8505462
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-AARR-F (08))
Program Officer
Hartsock, Peter
Project Start
2010-09-01
Project End
2015-06-30
Budget Start
2013-07-01
Budget End
2014-06-30
Support Year
4
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$536,689
Indirect Cost
$117,509
Name
University of California San Diego
Department
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
804355790
City
La Jolla
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92093
Conners, Erin E; Silverman, Jay G; Ulibarri, Monica et al. (2016) Structural Determinants of Client Perpetrated Violence Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities. AIDS Behav 20:215-24
Urada, Lianne A; Halterman, Sonja; Raj, Anita et al. (2016) Socio-structural and behavioral risk factors associated with trafficked history of female bar/spa entertainers in the sex trade in the Philippines. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 132:55-9
Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty et al. (2016) A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study. Int J Public Health 61:945-957
Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Brouwer, Kimberly C et al. (2015) HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region. EBioMedicine 2:1456-63
Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime et al. (2015) Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform. J Urban Health 92:338-51
Silverman, Jay G; Servin, Argentina; Goldenberg, Shira M et al. (2015) Sexual Violence and HIV Infection Associated With Adolescent vs Adult Entry Into the Sex Trade in Mexico. JAMA 314:516-8
Servin, Argentina E; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Gordon, Leah et al. (2015) Vulnerability Factors and Pathways Leading to Underage Entry into Sex Work in two Mexican-US Border Cities. J Appl Res Child 6:
Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Cordisco Tsai, Laura et al. (2014) Underage youth trading sex in the Philippines: trafficking and HIV risk. AIDS Care 26:1586-91
Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie (2014) Social and structural constraints on disclosure and informed consent for HIV survey research involving female sex workers and their bar managers in the Philippines. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 9:29-40
Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie (2014) A collaborative methodology for investigating the ethical conduct of research on female sex workers in the Philippines. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 9:41-5

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