The proposed studies are designed to identify the content and structural features of messages that when used in anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) mitigate adolescents'marijuana usage intentions and initiation. Hundreds of anti-marijuana PSAs have been created and aired, their lineage traceable at least to the days of Reefer Madness. The latest in this long line continues today in ads likening brains to fried eggs as a result of drug use ("This is your brain on drugs!"). The history of these efforts is littered with ineffective ads and whole campaigns based on decisions largely bereft of scientific insight. Evaluations of past efforts indicate that many have failed, a consistent outcome that can and must be reversed. The scarcity of positive outcomes is partially understandable. The scientific literature does not provide much in the way of solid guidance regarding the content and structural features of messages that combined might enhance the effectiveness of anti-marijuana PSAs. Equally challenging is the lack of solid research on the interaction of ad features with users'status, whose importance we have examined extensively in our prior research. To begin to redress these problems, we propose a systematic, theory-based, mixed-methods approach utilizing secondary data analysis, PSA coding and evaluation to inform the development of anti- marijuana communications that have a strong chance of persuading youth at all usage levels. We will test and identify the content and structural features of messages affecting ad acceptance, and subsequent attitudes and intentions regarding marijuana-facilitating development of a theoretical approach to guide future prevention efforts The research seeks to accomplish two specific aims: 1) identify (via expert coding and secondary data analysis) the content and structural message features that cohere, and that were associated with positive ad evaluations by respondents in the National Youth Anti-drug Media Campaign, whose evaluations are archived in the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY), a nationally representative survey of US adolescents, and 2) compare adolescents'coding of ads from the NYAMC with those of the expert panel convened in Aim 1 to accomplish two major goals: assess communalities and differences between adult expert coders and those of individuals representative of the ads'adolescent targets;and, more importantly, determine the association between the adolescent judges'coding of various ad characteristics and their overall evaluations of (or attitudes toward) the ads they have coded. The results of this multi-study, multi-method project will guide development of the next generation of anti-marijuana PSAs by identifying the content and structural features associated with desired attitude and behavior change, and will demonstrate the differential effect of these factors youth of varying user status.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed studies are designed to identify the content and structural features of messages that when used in anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) mitigate adolescents'marijuana usage intentions and initiation. Hundreds of anti-marijuana PSAs have been created and aired, their lineage traceable at least to the days of Reefer Madness. The latest in this long line continues today in ads likening brains to fried eggs as a result of drug use (This is your brain on drugs!). The history of these efforts is littered with ineffective ads and whole campaigns based on decisions largely bereft of scientific insight. Evaluations of past efforts indicate that many have failed, a consistent outcome that can and must be reversed. We cannot afford yet another ill-guided effort whose opportunity costs are calculated in the millions, and of whose outcomes the best that can be said is that little harm was done. To begin to redress these problems, we propose a systematic, theory-based, mixed-methods approach utilizing secondary data analysis, PSA coding and evaluation to inform the development of anti-marijuana communications that have a strong chance of persuading youth at all usage levels. We will test and identify the content and structural features of messages that affect ad acceptance, and subsequent attitudes and intentions regarding marijuana. This knowledge will facilitate developing a theoretical approach to guide future prevention efforts.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DA030490-03
Application #
8311026
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-PSE-J (50))
Program Officer
Diana, Augusto
Project Start
2010-09-15
Project End
2014-08-31
Budget Start
2012-09-01
Budget End
2014-08-31
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$159,203
Indirect Cost
$49,840
Name
Claremont Graduate University
Department
None
Type
Other Domestic Higher Education
DUNS #
076183789
City
Claremont
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
91711
Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T et al. (2014) Attitude ambivalence, friend norms, and adolescent drug use. Prev Sci 15:65-74
Lamb, Christopher S; Crano, William D (2014) Parents' beliefs and children's marijuana use: evidence for a self-fulfilling prophecy effect. Addict Behav 39:127-32
Huansuriya, Thipnapa; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D (2014) Parent-child drug communication: pathway from parents' ad exposure to youth's marijuana use intention. J Health Commun 19:244-59
Miller, Stephen M; Siegel, Jason T; Hohman, Zachary et al. (2013) Factors mediating the association of the recency of parent's marijuana use and their adolescent children's subsequent initiation. Psychol Addict Behav 27:848-53
Nakawaki, Brandon; Crano, William D (2012) Predicting adolescents' persistence, non-persistence, and recent onset of nonmedical use of opioids and stimulants. Addict Behav 37:716-21
Hemovich, Vanessa; Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D (2011) Understanding early-onset drug and alcohol outcomes among youth: the role of family structure, social factors, and interpersonal perceptions of use. Psychol Health Med 16:249-67