The long-range goal of this project is to understand how descending neural systems modify information processing in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus. Existence of descending innervation to hair-cell systems in most vertebrate species examined is strong presumptive evidence for their importance. Descending neural systems have high relevance for human health because they function to: 1) adjust the best operating range of the inner ear, 2) reduce the effects of masking noise, and 3) protect the inner ear from overstimulation by intense sound. Interruption of these systems would severely damage important processes like speech discrimination and render the inner ear more vulnerable to damage. This project will concentrate on two particular descending systems, the medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons and the middle ear muscle (MEM) motoneurons. Both types of these neurons respond to sound and form reflexes that send information to the auditory periphery. The intermediate steps of these reflexes, which pass through the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem, are not understood. The process by which the brain modulates these reflexes is also not understood. We will study the reflexive and modulatory neural pathways using light and electron microscopy, recordings, and lesions. The experimental model will be rodents. These experiments will answer questions like, """"""""Which neurons are the important reflex interneurons for the MOC and MEM reflexes?"""""""" and """"""""What types of synapses do the interneurons make on MOC neurons and MEM motoneurons?"""""""" We will also answer questions such as, """"""""How is characteristic frequency mapped by MOC neurons in the brain?"""""""" and """"""""How do MOC neurons respond in the awake animal?"""""""" The knowledge obtained will enable us to precisely specify the entire pathway of both of these reflexes. It will also greatly increase our understanding of both the descending and the ascending auditory pathways. This project aims to understand the neural pathways of two brainstem reflexes of the auditory pathway: the medial olivocochlear reflex and the middle ear muscle reflex. Both of these reflexes have high relevance for public health because they protect the ear from damage and reduce the effects of noise masking. An understanding of the neural pathways is important to understand how these reflexes accomplish their functions.

Public Health Relevance

This project aims to understand the neural pathways of two brainstem reflexes of the auditory pathway: the medial olivocochlear reflex and the middle ear muscle reflex. Both of these reflexes have high relevance for public health because they protect the ear from damage and reduce the effects of noise masking. An understanding of the neural pathways is important to understand how these reflexes accomplish their functions.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DC001089-19
Application #
7736797
Study Section
Auditory System Study Section (AUD)
Program Officer
Platt, Christopher
Project Start
1991-06-01
Project End
2013-11-30
Budget Start
2009-12-01
Budget End
2010-11-30
Support Year
19
Fiscal Year
2010
Total Cost
$317,666
Indirect Cost
Name
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Department
Type
DUNS #
073825945
City
Boston
State
MA
Country
United States
Zip Code
02114
Barber, Samuel R; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K et al. (2017) Auditory Brainstem Implant Array Position Varies Widely Among Adult and Pediatric Patients and Is Associated With Perception. Ear Hear 38:e343-e351
Guinan Jr, John J (2017) Olivocochlear efferents: Their action, effects, measurement and uses, and the impact of the new conception of cochlear mechanical responses. Hear Res :
Brown, M Christian (2016) Recording and labeling at a site along the cochlea shows alignment of medial olivocochlear and auditory nerve tonotopic mappings. J Neurophysiol 115:1644-53
Hight, Ariel Edward; Kozin, Elliott D; Darrow, Keith et al. (2015) Superior temporal resolution of Chronos versus channelrhodopsin-2 in an optogenetic model of the auditory brainstem implant. Hear Res 322:235-41
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Darrow, Keith N; Slama, Michaël C C; Kozin, Elliott D et al. (2015) Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathways. Brain Res 1599:44-56
Guex, Amélie A; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Hight, Ariel E et al. (2015) Conducting polymer electrodes for auditory brainstem implants. J Mater Chem B 3:5021-5027
Verma, Rohit U; Guex, Amélie A; Hancock, Kenneth E et al. (2014) Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus. Hear Res 310:69-75
Brown, M Christian (2014) Single-unit labeling of medial olivocochlear neurons: the cochlear frequency map for efferent axons. J Neurophysiol 111:2177-86

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