This research addresses refinement of a theory of speech production that has existed for more than half a century, the source-filter theory. It is used routinely in acoustic phonetics and in the description of voice and speech disorders. It is also used extensively in speech processing to separate sound sources from sound resonators. Recent advances in speech production research, primarily with computer simulation, have shown that the primary sound source in the larynx (glottal airflow) can be highly influenced by acoustic pressures propagating backwards from the vocal tract to the larynx. The feedback interaction can disturb vocal fold vibration, producing pitch jumps, subharmonic frequencies, or even chaos. It can also affect the phonation threshold pressure, making it either more easy or more difficult to self-sustain vocal fold oscillation. The significance of the research is that cerain vocal sound qualities, often labeled as voice disorders, may be part of a normal inventory of human sounds.
Specific aims are (1) to determine if vocal intensity can be affected by source-filter interaction (SFI), (2) to discover which vocal tract configurations lead to the greatest interactions, (3) to validate or invalidate a procedure known as inverse-filtering, which allegedly separates the source characteristics from filter characteristics, and (4) to determine if vocal instabilities in the aging male voice are related to SFI. Human volunteers and computer simulation will be used in a structured way to quantify and explain the nature of SFI.

Public Health Relevance

Speech production involves both creation of sound and reinforcement of sound. The larynx is the primary sound producing organ, and the airway (vocal tract) is the resonator. It has traditionally been assumed that the two function (and are controlled) independently, one producing pitch, loudness, and voice quality while the other produces vowels and consonants. It is investigated in this research whether or not this independence always exists. The airway structure (shape) may influence the production of sound in the larynx, creating loudness and pitch changes, as well as instabilities that are perceived as roughness and uncertainty in control. Some of these instabilities are observed in aging voices.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DC012045-02
Application #
8521239
Study Section
Motor Function, Speech and Rehabilitation Study Section (MFSR)
Program Officer
Shekim, Lana O
Project Start
2012-09-01
Project End
2017-08-31
Budget Start
2013-09-01
Budget End
2014-08-31
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$357,984
Indirect Cost
$117,726
Name
University of Utah
Department
Type
Organized Research Units
DUNS #
009095365
City
Salt Lake City
State
UT
Country
United States
Zip Code
84112
Titze, Ingo R (2018) WHERE HAS ALL THE POWER GONE? ENERGY PRODUCTION AND LOSS IN VOCALIZATION. Speech Commun 101:26-33
Titze, Ingo R; Maxfield, Lynn M; Walker, Megan C (2017) A Formant Range Profile for Singers. J Voice 31:382.e9-382.e13
Maxfield, Lynn; Palaparthi, Anil; Titze, Ingo (2017) New Evidence That Nonlinear Source-Filter Coupling Affects Harmonic Intensity and fo Stability During Instances of Harmonics Crossing Formants. J Voice 31:149-156
Titze, Ingo R (2017) Human Speech: A Restricted Use of the Mammalian Larynx. J Voice 31:135-141
Titze, Ingo R; Alipour, Fariborz; Blake, Douglas et al. (2017) Comparison of a fiber-gel finite element model of vocal fold vibration to a transversely isotropic stiffness model. J Acoust Soc Am 142:1376
DeJonckere, Philippe Henri; Lebacq, Jean; Titze, Ingo R (2017) Dynamics of the Driving Force During the Normal Vocal Fold Vibration Cycle. J Voice 31:649-661
Palaparthi, Anil; Maxfield, Lynn; Titze, Ingo R (2017) Estimation of Source-Filter Interaction Regions Based on Electroglottography. J Voice :
Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R (2016) Progression of Voice Breaks in a Nonpathological Voice as an Indicator of Aerodigestive Health. J Am Geriatr Soc 64:e93-e94
Titze, Ingo R; Maxfield, Lynn; Palaparthi, Anil (2016) An Oral Pressure Conversion Ratio as a Predictor of Vocal Efficiency. J Voice 30:398-406
Titze, Ingo R (2015) Sensitivity of odd-harmonic amplitudes to open quotient and skewing quotient in glottal airflow. J Acoust Soc Am 137:502-4

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