The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop non-invasive optical devices for the detection and diagnosis of early Dental caries (dental decay). New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested/reversed by non-surgical means through fluoride therapy, anti- bacterial therapy, dietary changes, or by low intensity laser irradiation. The principal factor limiting optical imaging through the enamel of the tooth in the visible range of 400-700-nm is light scattering. Light scattering in sound enamel and dentin is sufficiently strong in the visible range to obscure light transmission through the tooth. The magnitude of light scattering in Dental enamel decreases markedly with increasing wavelength. Therefore, we posit that the near-IR region at 1310-nm offers the greatest potential for new optical imaging modalities due to the weak scattering and absorption in sound Dental hard tissue. At longer wavelengths, absorption of water in the tissue increases markedly reducing the penetration of IR light. The overall objective of this application will be achieved through the following Specific Aims: 1) to test the hypothesis that near-IR polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the accurate assessment of the depth and severity of natural occlusal lesions in vivo. 2) To test the hypothesis that a near-IR (NIR) imaging system operating at 1310-nm can be used to acquire high-contrast images of interproximal and occlusal caries lesions in vivo. It is likely that if these studies and future clinical trials are a success, that these novel technologies for imaging Dental hard tissue will be employed for the detection and monitoring of early carious lesions without the use of ionizing radiation, thereby enabling conservative non- surgical intervention and the preservation of healthy tissue structure. Moreover, it is probable that this proposed imaging technology would enable the clinician to detect and quantify the severity of occlusal lesions that are not resolvable with conventional radiography due to the surrounding sound tissue structure.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Oral, Dental and Craniofacial Sciences Study Section (ODCS)
Program Officer
Drummond, James
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California San Francisco
Schools of Dentistry
San Francisco
United States
Zip Code
Fried, William A; Simon, Jacob C; Darling, Cynthia L et al. (2017) High-Contrast Reflectance Imaging of Composite Restorations Color-Matched to Tooth Structure at 1000-2300-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 10044:
Chang, Nai-Yuan N; Jew, Jamison; Simon, Jacob C et al. (2017) Influence of Multi-Wavelength Laser Irradiation of Enamel and Dentin Surfaces on Surface Morphology and Permeability. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 10044:
Lee, Robert C; Darling, Cynthia L; Staninec, Michal et al. (2017) Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods. J Biophotonics 10:433-445
Simon, Jacob C; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel (2017) Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 10044:
Chang, Nai-Yuan N; Jew, Jamison M; Simon, Jacob C et al. (2017) Influence of multi-wavelength laser irradiation of enamel and dentin surfaces at 0.355, 2.94, and 9.4??m on surface morphology, permeability, and acid resistance. Lasers Surg Med 49:913-927
Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel (2017) Selective Laser Ablation of Carious Lesions using Simultaneous Scanned Near-IR Diode and CO2 Lasers. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 10044:
Berg, Rhett A; Simon, Jacob C; Fried, Daniel et al. (2017) Optical changes of dentin in the near-IR as a function of mineral content. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 10044:
Simon, Jacob C; Kang, Hobin; Staninec, Michal et al. (2017) Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions. Lasers Surg Med 49:215-224
Lee, Robert C; Jang, Andrew; Fried, Daniel (2017) Near-infrared imaging of enamel hypomineralization due to developmental defects. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 10044:
Almaz, Elias C; Simon, Jacob C; Fried, Daniel et al. (2016) Influence of stains on lesion contrast in the pits and fissures of tooth occlusal surfaces from 800-1600-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9692:

Showing the most recent 10 out of 69 publications