Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is essential to use genomic information for personalized or predictive medicine. The long-term goal of our work is to understand mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation in order to advance our understanding of structural birth defects of the craniofacial complex. Morphogenesis is an emergent property of development that makes the relationship between genotype and phenotype complex. In this application we will expand on work that we performed during our first round of funding, and we will broaden the scope of our work to generate a more global understanding of genotype-phenotype relationship during morphogenesis of the face. Previously, we demonstrated that a non-linear relationship between Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and facial shape variation exists, whereby small changes in SHH signaling produce large phenotypic changes. Our preliminary data suggests that this is a fundamental property of signaling systems. In addition, we have determined that the shape of gene expression domains is highly associated with changes in morphology, and that there is genetic variation in the propensity to exhibit a range of phenotypic outcomes for a particular genotype. These preliminary data have led us to the hypothesis that variation in facial morphology emerges, in part, from molecular signaling mechanisms that modulate, not only signal magnitude, but also signal variation and the spatial organization of signaling centers. We will test this hypothesis in three Aims. First, we will use the Fgf8 allelic series of mice to generate phenotypic variation based on levels of FGF8 signaling and we will relate phenotypic outcomes with levels of pathway activity and cellular behaviors. Second, we will alter the shape of the Frontonasal Ectodermal Zone (FEZ) in the avian face, because the FEZ regulates morphogenesis of the upper jaw. We will then directly relate the shape of the FEZ to molecular, cellular, and morphological outcomes. Third, we will test genomic-level implications of the mechanisms investigated in aims 1 and 2 in a large group of recombinant inbred mouse strains. In this aim, we test the genetic basis for the modulation of phenotypic variance and we explore the genomic implications of the hypothesis that the genetics of morphology is less additive than is commonly assumed. Non-additive genetic variation is a major challenge to current genomic approaches to complex traits. We believe that the results of our work will make a significant contribution to understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype in the production structural diseases of the craniofacial complex.

Public Health Relevance

Structural malformations of the face are common and often exhibit a large degree of morphologic variation; however, the mechanisms underlying variation are not known. Our objective is to examine basic properties of signaling pathways, spatial patterns of gene expression, and the genetic associations that underlie variation. This basic research will help us understand the mechanisms that underlie morphologic variation in normal and diseased populations.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DE019638-07
Application #
9198982
Study Section
Skeletal Biology Development and Disease Study Section (SBDD)
Program Officer
Scholnick, Steven
Project Start
2016-01-01
Project End
2020-12-31
Budget Start
2017-01-01
Budget End
2017-12-31
Support Year
7
Fiscal Year
2017
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
University of California San Francisco
Department
Orthopedics
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
094878337
City
San Francisco
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
94118
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Linde-Medina, Marta; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Marcucio, Ralph (2016) Beyond cell proliferation in avian facial morphogenesis. Dev Dyn 245:190-6
Gonzalez, P N; Pavlicev, M; Mitteroecker, P et al. (2016) Genetic structure of phenotypic robustness in the collaborative cross mouse diallel panel. J Evol Biol 29:1737-51
Young, Nathan M; Sherathiya, Krunal; Gutierrez, Luis et al. (2016) Facial surface morphology predicts variation in internal skeletal shape. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 149:501-8
Linde-Medina, M (2016) Testing the cranial evolutionary allometric 'rule' in Galliformes. J Evol Biol 29:1873-8
Smith, Francis J; Percival, Christopher J; Young, Nathan M et al. (2015) Divergence of craniofacial developmental trajectories among avian embryos. Dev Dyn :
Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca et al. (2015) Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development. Curr Top Dev Biol 115:561-97
Xu, Qiuping; Jamniczky, Heather; Hu, Diane et al. (2015) Correlations Between the Morphology of Sonic Hedgehog Expression Domains and Embryonic Craniofacial Shape. Evol Biol 42:379-386
Green, Rebecca M; Feng, Weiguo; Phang, Tzulip et al. (2015) Tfap2a-dependent changes in mouse facial morphology result in clefting that can be ameliorated by a reduction in Fgf8 gene dosage. Dis Model Mech 8:31-43
Parsons, Trish E; Downey, Charlene M; Jirik, Frank R et al. (2015) Mind the gap: genetic manipulation of basicranial growth within synchondroses modulates calvarial and facial shape in mice through epigenetic interactions. PLoS One 10:e0118355

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