Nutrient intake in excess of energy expenditure is a major contributing factor to the world-wide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally nutrients have been considered to be precursors for the biosynthesis of macromolecules and as substrates for the production of molecules involved in energy metabolism. However, they are now understood to act through signal transduction cascades to regulate various cellular processes including protein synthesis. The nutrient-sensing pathways are not only interconnected at multiple levels but are tightly coupled to the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Thus, nutrient-sensing and insulin receptor signaling pathways do not function in isolation, but rather as components of a larger, integrated system of intracellular communication. The project proposed herein focuses on the liver, which is an especially important organ in regards to the body's response to nutrient intake because of its position in relation to the gastrointestinal tract, affording it immediate access to the products of digestion appearing in the portal vein. The project also focuses on protein synthesis because the liver, in combination with the gastrointestinal tract, accounts for 25% of the whole body protein synthetic response to a mixed meal. Finally, the project focuses on translational control mechanisms, an area of research for which the expertise of the PI's laboratory is well recognized and one becoming increasingly recognized as playing a prominent role in the regulation of gene expression. The project will employ non-diabetic and diabetic mice maintained on four different diets designed to increase both the fat and caloric intake. The hypothesis to be tested is that chronic nutrient excess and diabetes, alone and in combination, acting through translational control mechanisms, cause both global and specific changes in hepatic protein expression patterns that contribute to pathologies associated with maladapted metabolism. The hypothesis will be tested by pursuing the three following specific aims: (1) define the effects of different dietary regimens and diabetes, alone and in combination, on global and specific changes in protein expression patterns, the translational control mechanisms mediated by eIF2 and eIF4F, and the activation state of nutrient- sensing and insulin receptor signaling pathways in the liver of nondiabetic and diabetic mice;(2) quantitate expression of the mTORC1 repressor REDD1 in the liver of nondiabetic and diabetic mice in response to nutrient excess, define regulatory mechanisms contributing to its upregulated expression, and define its mechanisms of action;and (3) elucidate the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms through which diabetes-induced hyperglycemia and nutrient excess mediate increased hepatic expression of the translational repressor 4E-BP1. Overall, the project is expected to produce new knowledge that will provide insight into designing strategies for the treatment of pathologies resulting from the maladapted whole body metabolism associated with obesity and diabetes.

Public Health Relevance

Chronic intake of excess nutrients leads to accumulation of lipid in tissues, resulting in the development of insulin resistance and the pathological progression to type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. The project proposed herein will employ a number of novel experimental models and specialized techniques to define effects of nutrient excess and diabetes, alone and in combination, on molecular events that modulate the pattern of protein expression in the liver. Knowledge gained from the project will provide insight into designing strategies for treatment of pathologies resulting from the maladapted whole body metabolism associated with obesity and diabetes.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DK013499-43
Application #
8232112
Study Section
Integrative Nutrition and Metabolic Processes Study Section (INMP)
Program Officer
Laughlin, Maren R
Project Start
1996-09-01
Project End
2015-01-31
Budget Start
2012-02-01
Budget End
2013-01-31
Support Year
43
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$403,728
Indirect Cost
$141,415
Name
Pennsylvania State University
Department
Physiology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
129348186
City
Hershey
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
17033
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Steiner, Jennifer L; Pruznak, Anne M; Deiter, Gina et al. (2014) Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice. PLoS One 9:e99582
Gordon, Bradley S; Kazi, Abid A; Coleman, Catherine S et al. (2014) RhoA modulates signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mammalian cells. Cell Signal 26:461-7
Kimball, Scot R (2013) Does enteral protein administration stimulate duodenal mucosa protein synthesis through an mTORC1-independent signaling pathway? Am J Clin Nutr 97:235-6
Dennis, Michael D; McGhee, Nora K; Jefferson, Leonard S et al. (2013) Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) promotes cell survival during serum deprivation by sustaining repression of signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1). Cell Signal 25:2709-16
Tuckow, Alexander P; Kazi, Abid A; Kimball, Scot R et al. (2013) Identification of ubiquitin-modified lysine residues and novel phosphorylation sites on eukaryotic initiation factor 2B epsilon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 436:41-6
Dennis, Michael D; Shenberger, Jeffrey S; Stanley, Bruce A et al. (2013) Hyperglycemia mediates a shift from cap-dependent to cap-independent translation via a 4E-BP1-dependent mechanism. Diabetes 62:2204-14
Nie, Jia; Liu, Xiaolei; Lilley, Brendan N et al. (2013) SAD-A kinase controls islet *-cell size and function as a mediator of mTORC1 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:13857-62

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