The gastrointestinal (GI) tract informs the brain of the quantity and quality of food consumed during meals. Hence, GI signals drive satiation, and are seminal to control of food intake, regardless of the conditions that initiate it. This application or renewal continues an enduring interest in neural mechanisms by which satiation signals are communicated to the hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and integrated with other controls of food intake. Glutamate is the principal neurotransmitter released by vagal afferent terminals in the NTS. As such, glutamate receptors in the NTS are pivotal to the transmission and processing of vagal satiation signals. Our prior investigations revealed that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the NTS participate in control of meal size. Moreover, delay of meal termination by NTS injection of NMDAr antagonists depends on intact vagal afferent terminals in the NTS. Finally, activation NMDAr in the NTS is required for CCK-evoked MAPK signaling and consequent reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin (CCK), the archetypical GI satiation peptide. Nevertheless, we remain ignorant of the specific mechanisms by which NMDAr enable CCK- induced reduction of food intake. Therefore, one aim of this application is to use multiple in vivo and ex vivo preparations to test the nested hypotheses that reduction of food intake by CCK requires NMDAr-dependent activation of MAPK signaling in vagal afferent terminals in the NTS;that MAPK signaling results in pERK1/2- mediated phosphorylation of synapsin 1 in vagal afferent terminals;and leads to strengthened vagal afferent synaptic function in the NTS with consequent reduction of food intake. Other investigators have reported that hindbrain melanocortin receptor activation (MC4r) contributes to CCK-evoked MAPK signaling in the hindbrain and reduction of food intake. This report, taken together with our findings that NTS NMDAr activation is necessary for reduction of feeding by CCK, suggests an important interaction between NTS MC4r and NMDAr in control of food intake. Therefore, the second aim of this application is to establish a basic relationship between NTS NMDAr and MC4r that makes both crucial for CCK-induced reduction of food intake. Specifically we will apply pharmacological and immunochemical methods to determine whether NTS NMDAr activation is functionally upstream or downstream of NTS MC4r in control of food intake by CCK. In addition we will assess the possibility that NTS NMDAr participate in control of food intake by endogenous MC4r ligands in the NTS, and thereby may participate in the integration of melanocortinergic controls of food intake with those arising from vagal afferent activation. Our long-term goal is to determine how the unique properties of NMDAr contribute to the process of satiation and integration of GI satiation signals with other controls of food intake. Detailed appreciation of NTS NMDAr contributions to control of food intake is of significance to human health because it may provide avenues for therapeutic intervention in eating disorders and obesity.

Public Health Relevance

Glutamate is the principal neurotransmitter released by vagal afferent neurons, which communicate information from the GI tract to the hindbrain. The NMDA-type glutamate receptor participates in the control of food intake by GI signals in the hindbrain. The proposed work will delineate the neural mechanisms by which hindbrain NMDA receptors contribute to the processes that reduce food intake, and determine how these receptors interact with other hindbrain receptors involved in control of food intake. Results will provide new insights into the process of satiation and potential points for therapeutic intervention in eating disorders and development of obesity.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DK052849-14
Application #
8492068
Study Section
Neuroendocrinology, Neuroimmunology, Rhythms and Sleep Study Section (NNRS)
Program Officer
Yanovski, Susan Z
Project Start
1998-08-01
Project End
2017-06-30
Budget Start
2013-07-01
Budget End
2014-06-30
Support Year
14
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$312,101
Indirect Cost
$102,213
Name
Washington State University
Department
Veterinary Sciences
Type
Schools of Veterinary Medicine
DUNS #
041485301
City
Pullman
State
WA
Country
United States
Zip Code
99164
Campos, Carlos A; Shiina, Hiroko; Ritter, Robert C (2014) Central vagal afferent endings mediate reduction of food intake by melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist. J Neurosci 34:12636-45
Campos, Carlos A; Shiina, Hiroko; Silvas, Michael et al. (2013) Vagal afferent NMDA receptors modulate CCK-induced reduction of food intake through synapsin I phosphorylation in adult male rats. Endocrinology 154:2613-25
Gallaher, Z R; Ryu, V; Herzog, T et al. (2012) Changes in microglial activation within the hindbrain, nodose ganglia, and the spinal cord following subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Neurosci Lett 513:31-6
Campos, Carlos A; Wright, Jason S; Czaja, Krzysztof et al. (2012) CCK-induced reduction of food intake and hindbrain MAPK signaling are mediated by NMDA receptor activation. Endocrinology 153:2633-46
Zhang, Jingchuan; Ritter, Robert C (2012) Circulating GLP-1 and CCK-8 reduce food intake by capsaicin-insensitive, nonvagal mechanisms. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302:R264-73
Ritter, Robert C (2011) A tale of two endings: modulation of satiation by NMDA receptors on or near central and peripheral vagal afferent terminals. Physiol Behav 105:94-9
Wright, Jason; Campos, Carlos; Herzog, Thiebaut et al. (2011) Reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin requires activation of hindbrain NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R448-55
Guard, Douglas B; Swartz, Timothy D; Ritter, Robert C et al. (2009) Blockade of hindbrain NMDA receptors containing NR2 subunits increases sucrose intake. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R921-8
Guard, D B; Swartz, T D; Ritter, R C et al. (2009) NMDA NR2 receptors participate in CCK-induced reduction of food intake and hindbrain neuronal activation. Brain Res 1266:37-44
Czaja, K; Burns, G A; Ritter, R C (2008) Capsaicin-induced neuronal death and proliferation of the primary sensory neurons located in the nodose ganglia of adult rats. Neuroscience 154:621-30

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