The ultimate goal of this proposal is to determine the cause(s) of impaired glucose tolerance leading to type 2 diabetes. An improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the early events should provide a rational basis for the development of improved methods of early diagnosis and ultimately treatments for type 2 diabetes. The pancreatic beta cell response to nutrient oversupply and obesity associated insulin resistance is compensatory insulin hypersecretion in order to maintain euglycemia. Diabetes, and early states of glucose intolerance only develop in those who develop beta cell dysfunction. Although beta cell mass has been found to decline by ~50% in those with prediabetic states of glucose intolerance, controversy exists as to whether defects in the beta cell secretory response is due to deficient synthetic machinery or functional defects in glucose sensing and insulin secretion. This proposal will test the hypothesis that intrinsic or acquired defects in insulin biosynthesis characterize states of glucose intolerance, that these defects result in depletion of a rapidly mobilizable pool of insulin necessary for fully efficient beta cell function in response to nutrient stimuli. Insulin biosynthetic rates and relative sizes of intracellular beta cell pools will be measured for the first time in vivo in streptozotocin treated rats, and in subjects with normal, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes by the novel method of mass isotopomer distribution analysis.

Public Health Relevance

Controversy exists whether in those at risk for Type 2 Diabetes, there is an inability of pancreatic beta cells to make enough insulin or there is simply a failure to recognize glucose and appropriately release insulin. This proposal will measure for the first time the synthesis of insulin in normal subjects, those at risk, and those with Type 2 Diabetes and compare the results to an animal model of diabetes. We hope to understand whether the failure to release insulin in a timely fashion in those at high risk of diabetes is due to decreased insulin synthesis, lack of adequate insulin stores, or an inability to recognize glucose in the blood.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-EMNR-H (02))
Program Officer
Laughlin, Maren R
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Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Rogatsky, Eduard; Cruikshank, Greg; Stein, Daniel T (2009) Reduction in delay time of high-dwell volume pumps in LC-MS applications using short-term low-ratio split flow. J Sep Sci 32:321-7
Cui, Min-Hui; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Tomuta, Vlad et al. (2007) Cross contamination of intramyocellular lipid signals through loss of bulk magnetic susceptibility effect differences in human muscle using (1)H-MRSI at 4 T. J Appl Physiol 103:1290-8
Rogatsky, Eduard; Stein, Daniel T (2007) High dead volume pumps: delay time reduction by short-term low-ratio split flow in LC/MS applications. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 18:245-7
Rogatsky, Eduard; Tomuta, Vlad; Stein, Daniel T (2007) LC/MS quantitative study of glucose by iodine attachment. Anal Chim Acta 591:155-60
Rogatsky, Eduard; Balent, Beate; Goswami, Gayotri et al. (2006) Sensitive quantitative analysis of C-peptide in human plasma by 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry isotope-dilution assay. Clin Chem 52:872-9
Rogatsky, Eduard; Stein, Daniel (2005) Automated optimization of mass spectrometric parameters in 'Tune' mode for impure analytes in dirty samples using gradient high-performance liquid chromatography. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:3759-60
Rogatsky, Eduard; Stein, Daniel (2005) Evaluation of matrix effect and chromatography efficiency: new parameters for validation of method development. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 16:1757-9
Rogatsky, Eduard; Jayatillake, Harsha; Goswami, Gayotri et al. (2005) Sensitive LC MS quantitative analysis of carbohydrates by Cs+ attachment. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 16:1805-11
Rogatsky, Eduard; Stein, Daniel (2005) Novel, highly robust method of carbohydrate pre-purification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography prior to liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1073:11-6
Segal-Isaacson, C J; Johnson, Shannah; Tomuta, Vlad et al. (2004) A randomized trial comparing low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets matched for energy and protein. Obes Res 12 Suppl 2:130S-40S