Overt diabetic nephropathy (DN) is very slow to develop, but once initiated progresses rapidly. We postulate that early in the course of diabetes, NO availability is increased in part due to the recruitment of the vascular NO2 as a NO source. NO likely protects against the adverse cellular effects of hyperglycemia and by dilating the efferent arteriole (EA) prevents glomerular hypertension (HTN). Thus, HTN mechanisms do not play a significant role during this slow initiation phase. However, with endothelial dysfunction and NO loss over time the EA constricts and there is a further upregulation of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor(s) (EDHF), which unlike NO, can only dilate the AA, but not the EA. This increase in EA>AA resistance results in glomerular HTN. EDHF also impairs myogenic autoregulation with further exacerbation of glomerular HTN and overt DN develops. Consistent with the hypothesis, preliminary data show that the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats from the two major suppliers, Harlan (H) and Charles River (CR) differ greatly in NO availability (CR NO;H NO) and in their susceptibility to DN.
Specific Aim 1 will test the hypothesis that the NO availability profile will evolve differentially during the temporal course of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes in (H) and (CR) rats and changes in NO availability will be paralleled by postulated changes in renal endothelial hemodynamic function (NO, EDHF and prostaglandin dependent dilation), BP transmission parameters and DN susceptibility. Additionally, the hypothesis will be tested that the BP response to L-NAME at 10-14 days after diabetes will predict the subsequent severity of DN in individual rats at 4-6 months.
Specific Aim 2 will test if interventions that increase NO availability in (H) rats (dietary nitrite and/or arginine supplementation, tempol, tetrahydrobiopterin) or reduce it in (CR) rats (nitrite free diet + L-NAME) have the predicted effects on DN. Additionally, parallels and differences between diabetic (H) rats and the diabetic eNOS-/-, which do develop advanced DN pathology will be assessed.
Specific Aim 3 will use the in-vitro perfused hydronephrotic kidney model to test the hypothesis that DN is associated with EDHF >NO in the renal microcirculation resulting in a relative EA>AA vasoconstriction and increased PGC. Relevance these investigations should provide new insights into the roles of nitric oxide availability, endothelial dysfunction and increasing glomerular pressures as determinants of the course and susceptibility to DN.

Public Health Relevance

Loss of nitric oxide and high blood pressure has a major adverse impact on diabetic kidney disease but the reasons are not known. Using rodent models of diabetes, the proposed studies are addressed to the mechanisms by which diabetes increases pressure within the kidney and results in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. These studies will help define treatments to prevent and/or slow the progression of such diabetic kidney disease.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DK061653-07
Application #
8237037
Study Section
Pathobiology of Kidney Disease Study Section (PBKD)
Program Officer
Flessner, Michael Francis
Project Start
2002-04-15
Project End
2015-01-31
Budget Start
2012-02-01
Budget End
2013-01-31
Support Year
7
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$260,051
Indirect Cost
$15,978
Name
Chicago Assn for Research & Education in Sci
Department
Type
DUNS #
187174339
City
Hines
State
IL
Country
United States
Zip Code
60141
Griffin, Karen A; Polichnowski, Aaron; Litbarg, Natalia et al. (2014) Critical blood pressure threshold dependence of hypertensive injury and repair in a malignant nephrosclerosis model. Hypertension 64:801-7
Polichnowski, Aaron J; Lan, Rongpei; Geng, Hui et al. (2014) Severe renal mass reduction impairs recovery and promotes fibrosis after AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol 25:1496-507
Bidani, Anil K; Polichnowski, Aaron J; Loutzenhiser, Rodger et al. (2013) Renal microvascular dysfunction, hypertension and CKD progression. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 22:1-9
Polichnowski, Aaron J; Griffin, Karen A; Long, Jianrui et al. (2013) Blood pressure-renal blood flow relationships in conscious angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-infused rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 305:F1074-84
Griffin, Karen; Polichnowski, Aaron; Licea-Vargas, Hector et al. (2012) Large BP-dependent and -independent differences in susceptibility to nephropathy after nitric oxide inhibition in Sprague-Dawley rats from two major suppliers. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F173-82
Lan, Rongpei; Geng, Hui; Polichnowski, Aaron J et al. (2012) PTEN loss defines a TGF-?-induced tubule phenotype of failed differentiation and JNK signaling during renal fibrosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F1210-23
Griffin, Karen A; Bidani, Anil K (2009) Uncritical acceptance of combination treatment of angiotensin II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in nondiabetic renal disease trial results. Hypertension 53:e3;author reply e4
Bidani, Anil K; Griffin, Karen A; Williamson, Geoffrey et al. (2009) Protective importance of the myogenic response in the renal circulation. Hypertension 54:393-8
Griffin, Karen A; Bidani, Anil K (2008) Potential risks of calcium channel blockers in chronic kidney disease. Curr Cardiol Rep 10:448-55
Bidani, Anil K; Picken, Maria; Hacioglu, Rifat et al. (2007) Spontaneously reduced blood pressure load in the rat streptozotocin-induced diabetes model: potential pathogenetic relevance. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 292:F647-54

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