Copper (Cu) plays key catalytic and regulatory functions for biochemical reactions that are critical to normal growth, development and health. Menkes disease and Wilson's disease are two severe human genetic disorders of Cu metabolism that result in childhood mortality and hepatic and neurological dysfunction, respectively. Inappropriate copper balance is linked to myeloneuropathy, prion disease, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease and cancer. Consequently, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which cells control the acquisition, distribution and utilization of Cu. While the identify and functions of the Cu import, intracellular distribution and efflux machinery are beginning to be understood, we know very little about the physiological role of the Ctr2 protein, the regulation of Cu import and how organisms establish global Cu homeostasis.
Three specific aims are outlined in this application, which are inter- related by the information they will decipher on the mechanisms of action of the mammalian Cu transport machinery and its regulation at the cellular and systemic level. In the first specific aim the physiological role of the mammalian Ctr2 protein in Cu acquisition will be ascertained through the analysis of mouse Ctr2 knock out mutants, through biochemical and cell biological experiments in cultured cells and through the analysis of Ctr2 mutant proteins. In the second specific aim the regulation of the Ctr1 Cu importer and the Ctr2 protein will be deciphered through an analysis of their post- translational regulation in cell culture. In the third specific aim experiments are outlined to identify a novel blood-borne signal that allows inter-organ communication between peripheral organs such as the heart and the copper acquisition and storage organs. Taken together, these investigations will decipher key functional roles and cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for the Cu acquisition machinery, the function of which is essential for normal growth, development and human health.

Public Health Relevance

Copper is an essential element for human health and the inability to properly regulate copper balance is associated with lethal childhood disease, liver and neurological disease, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The research outlined in this application is designed to understand how mammals properly acquire copper and how copper acquisition is regulated. These studies may identify pathways and potential therapeutic avenues that are important in human diseases of copper balance.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DK074192-12
Application #
8519990
Study Section
Integrative Nutrition and Metabolic Processes Study Section (INMP)
Program Officer
Maruvada, Padma
Project Start
2001-02-01
Project End
2016-07-31
Budget Start
2013-08-01
Budget End
2014-07-31
Support Year
12
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$325,222
Indirect Cost
$115,334
Name
Duke University
Department
Pharmacology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
044387793
City
Durham
State
NC
Country
United States
Zip Code
27705
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Ohrvik, Helena; Thiele, Dennis J (2014) How copper traverses cellular membranes through the mammalian copper transporter 1, Ctr1. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1314:32-41
Brady, Donita C; Crowe, Matthew S; Turski, Michelle L et al. (2014) Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signalling and tumorigenesis. Nature 509:492-6
Ohrvik, Helena; Nose, Yasuhiro; Wood, L Kent et al. (2013) Ctr2 regulates biogenesis of a cleaved form of mammalian Ctr1 metal transporter lacking the copper- and cisplatin-binding ecto-domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E4279-88
Turski, Michelle L; Brady, Donita C; Kim, Hyung J et al. (2012) A novel role for copper in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Mol Cell Biol 32:1284-95
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Nevitt, Tracy; Ohrvik, Helena; Thiele, Dennis J (2012) Charting the travels of copper in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals. Biochim Biophys Acta 1823:1580-93
Haas, Kathryn L; Putterman, Allison B; White, Daniel R et al. (2011) Model peptides provide new insights into the role of histidine residues as potential ligands in human cellular copper acquisition via Ctr1. J Am Chem Soc 133:4427-37
Kim, Byung-Eun; Turski, Michelle L; Nose, Yasuhiro et al. (2010) Cardiac copper deficiency activates a systemic signaling mechanism that communicates with the copper acquisition and storage organs. Cell Metab 11:353-63
Nose, Yasuhiro; Wood, L Kent; Kim, Byung-Eun et al. (2010) Ctr1 is an apical copper transporter in mammalian intestinal epithelial cells in vivo that is controlled at the level of protein stability. J Biol Chem 285:32385-92

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