The healthy intestinal tract is characterized by continuous, well-controlled inflammation. This is caused by an interaction of the enteric epithelium normal bacterial flora that are usually in a state of homeostasis. Once this balance is broken, the immune system becomes chronically activated with overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, leading to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. The overall goal of this project is to define the molecular mechanisms by which the intestinal innate immune system maintains homeostasis with commensal or pathogenic bacterial flora in the gut. Recent findings of a family of proteins belonging to Nod or NBD-LRR proteins shed a new light on our understanding of bacterial recognition. One Nod protein, Nod2 detects moieties of the bacterial cell wall and its mutation is associated with Crohn's disease via unknown mechanisms. A copy of the mutated alleles of Nod2 increases the risk for Crohn's disease by ~2-4 fold whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity of Nod2 mutations increases the risk ~40 fold, suggesting mutations in Nod2 act in a recessive fashion for Crohn's disease. We have recently shown that Nod2 activates innate and adaptive immune responses through recognition of MDP (muramyl dipetide), a moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan, and protects the intestine from bacterial infection by regulating expression of a subgroup of intestinal anti-microbial peptides. Therefore, we hypothesize that Nod2 maintains intestinal homeostasis by controlling commensal and pathogenic bacteria via detection of bacteria or bacterial components and optimum production of anti-bacterial peptides in the intestine. These hypotheses will be evaluated by studies addressing the following specific aims.
Aim 1 proposes to define the Nod2-mediated signaling pathways leading to the expression of anti-microbial peptides in the intestine.
Aim 2 proposes to delineate the effect of Nod2 on intestinal homeostasis by using mouse colitis models.
Aim 3 proposes to determine the cell types involved in Nod2-dependent intestinal pathology. These studies should provide novel insights into the mechanism of intestinal homeostasis and the physiological functions of Nod2, which is of great significance to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
|Pandey, Aseem; Ding, Sheng Li; Qin, Qing-Ming et al. (2017) Global Reprogramming of Host Kinase Signaling in Response to Fungal Infection. Cell Host Microbe 21:637-649.e6|
|Bist, Pradeep; Cheong, Wan Shoo; Ng, Aylwin et al. (2017) E3 Ubiquitin ligase ZNRF4 negatively regulates NOD2 signalling and induces tolerance to MDP. Nat Commun 8:15865|
|Yoshihama, Sayuri; Vijayan, Saptha; Sidiq, Tabasum et al. (2017) NLRC5/CITA: A Key Player in Cancer Immune Surveillance. Trends Cancer 3:28-38|
|Yoshihama, Sayuri; Roszik, Jason; Downs, Isaac et al. (2016) NLRC5/MHC class I transactivator is a target for immune evasion in cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:5999-6004|
|Klimesova, Klara; Kverka, Miloslav; Zakostelska, Zuzana et al. (2013) Altered gut microbiota promotes colitis-associated cancer in IL-1 receptor-associated kinase M-deficient mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:1266-77|
|Biswas, Amlan; Kobayashi, Koichi S (2013) Regulation of intestinal microbiota by the NLR protein family. Int Immunol 25:207-14|
|Meissner, Torsten B; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S (2012) NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA). Microbes Infect 14:477-84|
|Kobayashi, Koichi S (2012) NLRC5/CITA: a novel regulator of class I major histocompatibility complex genes. J immunodefic Disord 1:|
|Meissner, Torsten B; Liu, Yuen-Joyce; Lee, Kyoung-Hee et al. (2012) NLRC5 cooperates with the RFX transcription factor complex to induce MHC class I gene expression. J Immunol 188:4951-8|
|Biswas, Amlan; Meissner, Torsten B; Kawai, Taro et al. (2012) Cutting edge: impaired MHC class I expression in mice deficient for Nlrc5/class I transactivator. J Immunol 189:516-20|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 34 publications