The deiodinases initiate or terminate thyroid hormone (TH) action. Studies pioneered in my laboratory unveiled that the activating deiodinase (D2) and the inactivating deiodinase (D3) can locally increase or decrease TH signaling in a tissue- and temporal-specific fashion. In other words, D2 and D3 determine the intensity of thyroid signaling independently of plasma T3 (the biologically active TH. Our studies revealed that these mechanisms can be modulated by a wide variety of signaling molecules such as the hedgehog family of proteins, bile acids, HIF-1, NF-B, and a number of xenobiotic substances. These studies have indicated that deiodinases play a broad role in the control of metabolism and disease state, the understanding of which is the focus of this application. In this proposal, we focus on the role of inactivating deiodinase (D3) in three different tissues, brain, heart and pancreas (specifically beta cells). Our publications and preliminary data show that D3 plays a crucial role in these three tissues. For example, in brain, we have shown that D3 translocates into the nucleus to inactivate thyroid hormone (T3) to reduce metabolism in neurons. In addition, we have demonstrated that D3 plays a critical role in myocardial fibrosis and cardiac remodeling using paternally imprinted D3 heterozygous mouse models. Finally, we have published that a D3 knockout mouse has impaired glucose tolerance and has a defect in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. These discoveries underlie a role of D3-controlled termination of TH signaling in brain, heart and pancreatic beta cells with repercussions for metabolic regulation in brain, adrenergic or angiotensin signaling in heart and insulin secretion mechanism in pancreatic beta cells. Our studies indicate that these novel D3 mediated adaptive mechanisms are operating in settings of three different tissues, such as brain, heart and pancreas. This proposal investigates the D3 paradigm from the perspective of various physiological or pathological contexts in different tissues, examining the effects of inactivating thyroid hormone signaling by D3 in the model of stroke, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes. The novel findings that (i) D3 plays an important protective role in neuronal hypoxia/ischemia, (ii) myocardial D3 affects adrenergic and angiotensin signaling for myocardiac fibrosis, and that (iii) D3 is crucial n pancreatic beta cell development, expansion and insulin secretion, form the basis of this proposal.

Public Health Relevance

Tissue specific activation (D2) and inactivation (D3) of thyroid hormone by deiodinases is critical in metabolic regulation. This proposal is to investigate these pathways in brain stroke, cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes and obesity. The proposal is centered on our novel observation that ischemia/hypoxia leads to D3 expression and localized tissue hypothyroidism. This study will provide the scientific basis of therapeutic intervention of stroke heart disease and diabetes respectively.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Project (R01)
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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Study Section (MCE)
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Margolis, Ronald N
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Rush University Medical Center
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
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McAninch, Elizabeth A; Bianco, Antonio C (2014) Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1311:77-87
Bianco, Antonio C; Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas et al. (2014) American Thyroid Association Guide to investigating thyroid hormone economy and action in rodent and cell models. Thyroid 24:88-168
Arrojo E Drigo, Rafael; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Werneck-de-Castro, Joao Pedro Saar et al. (2013) Role of the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in the control of thyroid hormone signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3956-64
Medina, Mayrin C; Molina, Judith; Gadea, Yelena et al. (2011) The thyroid hormone-inactivating type III deiodinase is expressed in mouse and human beta-cells and its targeted inactivation impairs insulin secretion. Endocrinology 152:3717-27
da-Silva, Wagner S; Ribich, Scott; Arrojo e Drigo, Rafael et al. (2011) The chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholic and 4-phenylbutyric acid accelerate thyroid hormone activation and energy expenditure. FEBS Lett 585:539-44
Bianco, Antonio C (2011) Minireview: cracking the metabolic code for thyroid hormone signaling. Endocrinology 152:3306-11
Grozovsky, Renata; Ribich, Scott; Rosene, Matthew L et al. (2009) Type 2 deiodinase expression is induced by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists in skeletal myocytes. Endocrinology 150:1976-83
Gereben, B; Zeold, A; Dentice, M et al. (2008) Activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone by deiodinases: local action with general consequences. Cell Mol Life Sci 65:570-90
Huang, Stephen A; Bianco, Antonio C (2008) Reawakened interest in type III iodothyronine deiodinase in critical illness and injury. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4:148-55
Bianco, Antonio C; Ribich, Scott; Kim, Brian W (2007) An inside job. Endocrinology 148:3077-9