This program will address three questions in order to better understand the role of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as a major target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN) and the properties of the anti-PLA2R antibodies that are specifically detected in patients with the disease. 1. Do variants in the PLA2R1 gene account for susceptibility to idiopathic MN? This aim is based on the finding that the PLA2R epitope identified by anti-PLA2R autoantibodies is conformation dependent; the known propensity for other members of the mannose receptor/PLA2R family to exist in bent or extended configurations; differences in immunoreactivity between PLA2R in normal and MN kidney tissues; and the presence of several non-synonymous SNPs in PLA2R1, including eight within the N- terminal region that contains the epitope, at least three of which are predicted to affect PLA2R structure. Hypothesis: Variants in PLA2R1 may explain the unique properties of the pathogenic epitope in MN. Approach: Genomic variants in PLA2R1 from patients with idiopathic MN will be compared to matched controls to determine if there are unique SNPs that co-segregate with the disease. Particular attention will be paid to those variants that are predicted to affect PLA2R structure or function. 2. Do anti-PLA2R autoantibodies activate complement and, if so, which IgG subclass is responsible and which pathway is activated? This aim will address the apparent paradox that IgG4, the major IgG subclass in idiopathic MN and predominant anti-PLA2R subclass, is incapable of activating the classical complement pathway, yet complement components are commonly present in the glomerular immune deposits in idiopathic MN. The presence of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and activated C4 but absent C1q in the immune deposits suggests that the lectin pathway may be involved. It is noteworthy that immunoglobulins lacking terminal galactose on Fc N-linked glycans have been shown to activate MBL. Hypothesis: IgG4 anti-PLA2R autoantibodies may activate complement via the lectin pathway. Approach: The ability of PLA2R IgG subclasses to activate complement will be assessed. If IgG4 activates complement, its ability to bind and activate MBL will be determined and its glycosylation state examined. 3. Is recurrent MN in transplanted human kidneys associated with circulating anti-PLA2R? Idiopathic MN frequently recurs in the transplanted kidney and is associated with a high risk of allograft loss. There is presently no way to predict which patients are likely to recur. Hypothesis: The presence of circulating anti-PLA2R will predict the recurrence of MN. Approach: Pretransplant and serial post-transplant sera from patients with idiopathic MN will be tested to determine if the presence of anti-PLA2R antibodies predates and presages the recurrence of MN.
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN) is a relatively common worldwide cause of proteinuric kidney disease in all ethnic groups with a high rate of recurrence after kidney transplantation. Following on our finding that the M-type phospholipase receptor (PLA2R) is a specific target antigen of circulating autoantibodies in a high proportion of patients with MN, we propose to examine if there is a genetic susceptibility to the disease and determine if alterations in the sugar coating of the autoantibodies might explain their ability to cause kidney damage by activating the complement system. We also plan to find out if the likelihood of recurrence after transplantation can be predicted by detecting circulating antibodies to PLA2R.
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