The Visible Human Project (VHP) of the National Library of Medicine has catalyzed the development of advanced visualization software that has aided in anatomy education and has been an invaluable resource to biomedical researchers. It has aided in the development of numerous technologies, with applications spanning from improving imaging technology to simulating surgical procedures. Our long-term goal is to develop a comparable """"""""Audible Human Project"""""""" (AHP). This would accurately simulate the production, transmission and noninvasive measurement of naturally-occurring sounds associated with cardiovascular, pulmonary and gastro-intestinal function. It would also model externally introduced sounds, for example via percussion at the skin surface. Constructed from a baseline of acoustic characteristics recorded for specific human subjects with specific pathologies and sensors, the Audible Human model extrapolates the acoustic characteristics for virtual patients with different pathologies and anatomical dimensions. It also simulates access to the pathologies of virtual patients using different acoustic sensors from the original recording sensor. Such a comprehensive tool would have a significant impact on medical education and research. It could catalyze the development of new inexpensive, portable auscultative methods, as well as more advanced multimode acoustic imaging modalities. From an educational perspective, recent studies have emphasized the continued importance of skilled auscultation in medicine and the fact that this skill is in decline among younger physicians. The AHP could help provide a more effective educational experience. A student would not just listen to audio recordings, but would be able to interactively vary anatomy and pathology, as well as sensor position, type and contact pressure, so as to hear, """"""""see"""""""" and """"""""feel"""""""" (in a haptic environment) the results and associate them with quantifiable metrics. The goal of this 5-year R01 application (which builds upon a R03 pilot grant that received a priority score of 126) is to develop and experimentally validate comprehensive male and female upper torso acoustic models capable of representing healthy and specific pathological conditions, including pneumothorax, pleural effusion, hydrothorax, mucous plugs, emphysema, obesity and masses (tumors) in the lung. These models will simulate breath sound generation, transmission and measurement via contact and non-contact sensors on the torso surface. They will also simulate the transmission and measurement of externally introduced sound via introduction of sound at the glottis into the bronchial airway tree or via percussion on the torso surface. In order to achieve this goal, the following specific aims will be undertaken: (1) Develop the AHP computer simulation model to simulate breath sound generation, how specific lung pathologies alter the acoustic environment, and how different contact acoustic sensor dynamics alter measurements;(2) Perform mechanical phantom model studies to evaluate and refine the AHP computer model;(3) Perform canine animal model studies to further refine the AHP computer model;and (4) Perform human subject studies to validate the AHP computer model.

Public Health Relevance

The envisioned comprehensive Audible Human Project, like the Visible Human Project, will be relevant to both medical research and education. It would significantly impact public health by catalyzing the development of improved medical diagnostic techniques and by providing a more effective educational paradigm for teaching stethoscopic skills, which are in decline as noted in recent studies. The student would not just listen to audio recordings but would be able to interactively vary anatomy and disease, as well as stethoscope characteristics and hear, """"""""see"""""""" and """"""""feel"""""""" the results.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)
Research Project (R01)
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Biomedical Computing and Health Informatics Study Section (BCHI)
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Peng, Grace
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University of Illinois at Chicago
Biomedical Engineering
Schools of Engineering
United States
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Peng, Ying; Dai, Zoujun; Mansy, Hansen A et al. (2016) Sound transmission in porcine thorax through airway insonification. Med Biol Eng Comput 54:675-89
Azad, Md Khurshidul; Mansy, Hansen A (2016) Generation of Pig Airways using Rules Developed from the Measurements of Physical Airways. J Bioeng Biomed Sci 6:
Schwartz, Benjamin L; Yin, Ziying; Yasar, Temel K et al. (2016) Scattering and Diffraction of Elastodynamic Waves in a Concentric Cylindrical Phantom for MR Elastography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 63:2308-2316
Mansy, Hansen A; Balk, Robert A; Warren, William H et al. (2015) Pneumothorax effects on pulmonary acoustic transmission. J Appl Physiol (1985) 119:250-7
Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Mansy, Hansen A et al. (2015) Experimental and Computational Studies of Sound Transmission in a Branching Airway Network Embedded in a Compliant Viscoelastic Medium. J Sound Vib 339:215-229
Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Mansy, Hansen A et al. (2015) A model of lung parenchyma stress relaxation using fractional viscoelasticity. Med Eng Phys 37:752-8
Kearney, Steven P; Khan, Altaf; Dai, Zoujun et al. (2015) Dynamic viscoelastic models of human skin using optical elastography. Phys Med Biol 60:6975-90
Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M et al. (2014) A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung. J Acoust Soc Am 136:1419
Liu, Yifei; Yasar, Temel K; Royston, Thomas J (2014) Ultra wideband (0.5-16?kHz) MR elastography for robust shear viscoelasticity model identification. Phys Med Biol 59:7717-34
Peng, Ying; Dai, Zoujun; Mansy, Hansen A et al. (2014) Sound transmission in the chest under surface excitation: an experimental and computational study with diagnostic applications. Med Biol Eng Comput 52:695-706

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