Preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight are major causes of infant mortality and severe morbidity in the United States. We propose to investigate the hypothesis that maternal exposure during pregnancy to ambient air pollution (CO, NO2, O3,, PM2.5, PM10, SO2) and traffic (a significant local source of air pollution) is associated with increased risk for low birth weight (<2500 gm), preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestation) and small for gestational age birth (<10th percentile weight for gestational age). Several studies have examined the relationships between these adverse birth outcomes and maternal exposure to ambient air pollution but results have been inconclusive. A major impediment to this research has been the large sample size needed to investigate these relationships as well as the level of personal information needed to address potential confounders and accurately estimate exposure throughout pregnancy. This study will utilize two related datasets for the same geographic area and time period: (1) an existing cohort of women (N=10,524) followed prospectively throughout pregnancy by the Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology;and (2) birth certificate data (480,000 singleton live births in CT and MA, 2000 to 2006). The cohort data provides well characterized variables to control for all major confounders and information about each of the mothers'residences throughout pregnancy to accurately assess exposure. The birth certificate data provides the statistical power to investigate severe, less frequent outcomes (very low birth weight <1500 gm, very preterm delivery <32 weeks), and to examine the effects of air pollution and traffic among African American women, already at risk for preterm delivery and low birth weight. A comparison study will also be conducted to determine the reliability of birth certificate data for use in air pollution research. Since all exposure assessments have some limitations, we propose four methods to measure exposure to air pollutants: central site monitors;a GIS/traffic model;land use regression to measure NO2 exposure;and satellite imagery to measure PM2.5 exposure. The proposed study will have the power to estimate odds ratios of 1.15 and 1.25 in the birth certificate and cohort data, respectively. If an association is confirmed, reductions in specific types of air pollution may result in a reduction in adverse birth outcomes.

Public Health Relevance

Preterm delivery and low birth weight are major causes of infant death and disability in the United States. This study will investigate whether a mother's exposure during pregnancy to air pollution and traffic (a significant local source of air pollution) is associated with increased risk for these adverse birth outcomes. If confirmed, reductions in specific types of air pollution may reduce these major infant health problems.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01ES016317-05
Application #
8272587
Study Section
Infectious Diseases, Reproductive Health, Asthma and Pulmonary Conditions Study Section (IRAP)
Program Officer
Gray, Kimberly A
Project Start
2008-08-08
Project End
2014-04-30
Budget Start
2012-05-01
Budget End
2014-04-30
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$476,728
Indirect Cost
$156,214
Name
Yale University
Department
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
043207562
City
New Haven
State
CT
Country
United States
Zip Code
06520
Pereira, Gavin; Evans, Kristin A; Rich, David Q et al. (2016) Fine Particulates, Preterm Birth, and Membrane Rupture in Rochester, NY. Epidemiology 27:66-73
Pereira, Gavin; Bracken, Michael B; Bell, Michelle L (2016) Particulate air pollution, fetal growth and gestational length: The influence of residential mobility in pregnancy. Environ Res 147:269-74
Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R; Bell, Michelle L (2016) Association between greenness, urbanicity, and birth weight. Sci Total Environ 542:750-6
Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun et al. (2015) Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of preterm birth in Lanzhou, China. Environ Int 76:71-7
Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L (2014) The Association between Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Birth Weight-Implication of Buffer Exposure Assignment. Environ Res Lett 9:
Pereira, Gavin; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Hyung Joo et al. (2014) Sources of fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth in Connecticut, 2000-2006: a longitudinal study. Environ Health Perspect 122:1117-22
Hyder, Ayaz; Lee, Hyung Joo; Ebisu, Keita et al. (2014) PM2.5 exposure and birth outcomes: use of satellite- and monitor-based data. Epidemiology 25:58-67
Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Leaderer, Brian P et al. (2014) Associations of PM₂.₅ constituents and sources with hospital admissions: analysis of four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts (USA) for persons ≥ 65 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:138-44
Pereira, Gavin; Bell, Michelle L; Belanger, Kathleen et al. (2014) Fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth and pre-labor rupture of membranes in Perth, Western Australia 1997-2007: a longitudinal study. Environ Int 73:143-9
Pereira, Gavin; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita et al. (2014) Fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth in Connecticut in 2000-2006: a longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol 179:67-74

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