Human exposure to sediment-borne contaminants is not directly related to chemical concentrations in the bulk sediment, but is instead controlled by the bioavailable concentration or bioavailability. Remediation practices, such as dredging, sand capping, sorbent amendment, and even monitored natural recovery (MNR) may all affect the bioavailability of sediment contaminants differently than the bulk sediment chemical concentration. In particular, bioavailability is a key to better assessing human exposure to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) such as DDT, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins through consumption of fish from contaminated areas. However, current methods for determining sediment HOC bioavailability suffer from method-specific limitations. Partial extraction techniques to estimate bioaccessibility are invariably influenced by types of extractants and extraction conditions selected. Passive samplers, including solid phase microextraction (SPME), must be used under equilibrium conditions that may take months to reach. In this project we exploit the wide availability of stable isotope labeled HOC compounds and GC-MS systems in two novel applications aiming to greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of bioavailability measurement. The first approach uses the concept of isotope exchange (or dilution), similar to what has been done for trace elements, to derive the exchangeable concentration as an approximation of bioaccessible concentration. The fact that most HOCs are highly stable lends them the quality of being conservative and thus ideal for such an application. In the second approach, we incorporate stable isotope labeled HOCs with SPME by using the labeled HOCs as performance reference compounds so that SPME may be used under non-equilibrium conditions with short sampling time. The isotope exchange approach may be applied to ex situ assessment while the stable isotope- SPME method may be used for both ex situ and in situ measurements. We will carry out systematic studies to prove the underlying assumptions, develop and optimize the methods using spiked sediments, validate the methods through extensive bioaccumulation assays using a common fish prey (polychaete worm) and a deposit-feeding fish (California halibut), and then apply the methods for ex situ and in situ measurement of bioavailability of DDTs and PCBs at the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund site off the coast of Los Angeles that has undergone pilot remediation trials and is scheduled for sand capping in 2012. At the end of this project, we expect to produce a range of rigorously tested methods that may be easily adopted for ex situ or in situ monitoring of sediment remediation sites to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation operations and predict changes in human exposure potential.
Human exposure to sediment-borne contaminants such as DDT, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins is not directly related to chemical concentrations in the bulk sediment, but is instead controlled by bioavailability. In this project we exploit the wide availability of stable isotope labeled HOC compounds and GC-MS systems in two novel applications aiming to greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of bioavailability measurement. These methods may be easily adopted for ex situ or in situ monitoring of sediment remediation sites to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation operations and better predict changes in human exposure potential.
|Coffin, Scott; Gan, Jay; Schlenk, Daniel (2017) Comparisons of field and laboratory estimates of risk of DDTs from contaminated sediments to humans that consume fish in Palos Verdes, California, USA. Sci Total Environ 601-602:1139-1146|
|Crago, Jordan; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Kupsco, Allison et al. (2016) Trophic transfer and effects of DDT in male hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from Palos Verdes Superfund site, CA (USA) and comparisons to field monitoring. Environ Pollut 213:940-948|
|Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Xiaoqin; Jia, Fang et al. (2016) Isotopic exchange on solid-phase micro extraction fiber in sediment under stagnant conditions: Implications for field application of performance reference compound calibration. Environ Toxicol Chem 35:1978-85|
|Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul et al. (2015) Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS. Aquat Toxicol 165:136-43|
|Jia, Fang; Gan, Jay (2014) Comparing black carbon types in sequestering polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments. Environ Pollut 184:131-7|
|Jia, Fang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Crago, Jordan et al. (2014) Use of isotope dilution method to predict bioavailability of organic pollutants in historically contaminated sediments. Environ Sci Technol 48:7966-73|
|Bao, Lian-Jun; Jia, Fang; Crago, J et al. (2013) Assessing bioavailability of DDT and metabolites in marine sediments using solid-phase microextraction with performance reference compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:1946-53|
|Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay (2013) A stable isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants. Environ Pollut 176:171-7|
|Cui, Xinyi; Mayer, Philipp; Gan, Jay (2013) Methods to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants: Principles, operations, and limitations. Environ Pollut 172:223-34|
|Cui, Xinyi; Bao, Lianjun; Gan, Jay (2013) Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with stable isotope calibration for measuring bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 47:9833-40|