Soon after birth, most infants develop near emmetropic refractive errors that are then maintained in both eyes throughout childhood and into early adult life. However, for reasons not currently understood, a significant and possibly increasing proportion of the population develop abnormal refractive errors (currently about 30% of young adults in the USA have significant refractive errors). Refractive errors are a significant public health concern because in addition to the high costs and the complications associated with traditional optical and surgical correction strategies, refractive errors can lead to permanent sensory disorders and ocular abnormalities causing blindness. The long-term goal of our research program is to provide a better understanding of the etiology of human refractive errors.
The specific aims of our proposed research are to determine how visual experience affects refractive development and to characterize the operational properties of the vision-dependent mechanisms that regulate eye growth. Since many of the required experiments can not be conducted in humans, but our purpose is to generate knowledge that can be applied to human development, these experiments will be conducted using rhesus monkeys. Controlled rearing strategies and optical and ultrasonographic measurement techniques will be used to determine: 1) the relative contributions of the central and peripheral retina to emmetropization and vision-dependent changes in eye growth. 2) the impact of peripheral refractive errors on emmetropization, and 3) the spatial integration characteristics of the vision-dependent mechanisms that regulate eye growth. These experiments focus on fundamental issues concerning the role of visual experience that have largely been ignored'in previous studies in humans. Overall the proposed studies are an important step in determining how and to what extent visual experience contributes to the genesis of common human refractive errors. The results of these studies will potentially provide the foundation for new treatment and management strategies for human refractive errors.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01EY003611-28
Application #
7752509
Study Section
Central Visual Processing Study Section (CVP)
Program Officer
Wujek, Jerome R
Project Start
1981-02-01
Project End
2011-07-31
Budget Start
2010-01-01
Budget End
2011-07-31
Support Year
28
Fiscal Year
2010
Total Cost
$356,880
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Houston
Department
Type
Schools of Optometry/Ophthalmol
DUNS #
036837920
City
Houston
State
TX
Country
United States
Zip Code
77204
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Smith 3rd, Earl L; Hung, Li-Fang; Arumugam, Baskar et al. (2017) Observations on the relationship between anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus. Vision Res 134:26-42
Arumugam, Baskar; Hung, Li-Fang; To, Chi-Ho et al. (2016) The Effects of the Relative Strength of Simultaneous Competing Defocus Signals on Emmetropization in Infant Rhesus Monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57:3949-60
Smith 3rd, Earl L; Hung, Li-Fang; Arumugam, Baskar et al. (2015) Effects of Long-Wavelength Lighting on Refractive Development in Infant Rhesus Monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56:6490-500
Arumugam, Baskar; Hung, Li-Fang; To, Chi-Ho et al. (2014) The effects of simultaneous dual focus lenses on refractive development in infant monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:7423-32
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Tao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Guofu et al. (2014) Early monocular defocus disrupts the normal development of receptive-field structure in V2 neurons of macaque monkeys. J Neurosci 34:13840-54
Shen, Guofu; Tao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin et al. (2014) Oblique effect in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys. J Vis 14:
Holden, B; Sankaridurg, P; Smith, E et al. (2014) Myopia, an underrated global challenge to vision: where the current data takes us on myopia control. Eye (Lond) 28:142-6
Mutti, Donald O; Gwiazda, Jane; Norton, Thomas T et al. (2013) Myopia--yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Optom Vis Sci 90:1161-4

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