The purpose of the proposed study is to define new processes that regulate phototransduction and adaptation in visual photoreceptors. The long-term goal is to determine the molecular mechanisms that regulate synthesis of a second messenger of phototransduction, cyclic GMP (cGMP), by retinal membrane guanylyl cyclases (retGC). The proposal is based on the finding that photoreceptor-specific calcium sensor proteins, GCAPs, that regulate retGC in response to the change in intracellular free calcium concentrations are essential for normal photoresponses and survival of photoreceptor cells. Recent evidence supports our hypothesis that magnesium binding in two EF-hand domains controls GCAP docking with the cyclase in the light. Therefore, the first aim of the proposal is to identify, by using directed mutagenesis, the docking sites in retGC and GCAPs and to test their function in vitro and in vivo. There are two ubiquitous GCAPs in vertebrates, GCAP1 and GCAP2. Recent findings using GCAP1 and GCAP2 gene knockout mouse models have lead to a hypothesis that activation of cGMP synthesis in response to light is a two-step process, in which GCAP1 and GCAP2 stimulate cGMP production sequentially, according to their different calcium sensitivity. There are also two isozymes of retGC, retGC1 and retGC2, required for rod recovery. Therefore, the second specific aim is to establish how the two different isozymes of retGC are regulated by GCAP1 and GCAP2 in mouse rods. We plan to establish parameters and biochemical regulation of individual retGCs by individual GCAP1 or GCAP2 and determine their contribution to the rod physiology and to the progression of photoreceptor cell death caused by mutations in GCAP1. Cone cells respond to light and recover faster than rods and adapt to light very rapidly, thus leading to a hypothesis that cGMP synthesis is regulated faster in cones than in rods. Therefore, the third specific aim of this proposal is to determine the biochemical properties of retGC in cones and the role of individual GCAPs in regulation of cone retGC activity. The proposed experiments are relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms that control photoreceptor activity and cause inherited retinal diseases in human patients.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed study has relevance to public health, because its completion will provide better understanding of the processes important for both normal vision and visual disorders. The main goal for this research is to understand how retinal guanylyl cyclases and calcium-binding proteins control electrical responses of the retina and why the mutations that affect these proteins lead to congenital blindness. The specific purpose of this study is to elucidate molecular mechanisms of their interactions and their role in retinal physiology and retinal degeneration.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01EY011522-17
Application #
8302364
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-CB-G (90))
Program Officer
Neuhold, Lisa
Project Start
1996-08-01
Project End
2013-07-31
Budget Start
2012-08-01
Budget End
2013-07-31
Support Year
17
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$342,374
Indirect Cost
$104,774
Name
Salus University
Department
Other Basic Sciences
Type
Schools of Optometry/Ophthalmol
DUNS #
077069904
City
Elkins Park
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
19027
Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Dizhoor, Alexander M (2016) Functional Study and Mapping Sites for Interaction with the Target Enzyme in Retinal Degeneration 3 (RD3) Protein. J Biol Chem 291:19713-23
Yang, Sufang; Dizhoor, Alexander; Wilson, David J et al. (2016) GCAP1, Rab6, and HSP27: Novel Autoantibody Targets in Cancer-Associated Retinopathy and Autoimmune Retinopathy. Transl Vis Sci Technol 5:1
Dizhoor, Alexander M; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Peshenko, Igor V (2016) The R838S Mutation in Retinal Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Alters Calcium Sensitivity of cGMP Synthesis in the Retina and Causes Blindness in Transgenic Mice. J Biol Chem 291:24504-24516
Lim, Sunghyuk; Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V et al. (2016) Structure of Guanylyl Cyclase Activator Protein 1 (GCAP1) Mutant V77E in a Ca2+-free/Mg2+-bound Activator State. J Biol Chem 291:4429-41
Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Dizhoor, Alexander M (2015) Evaluating the role of retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1) domains in binding guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). J Biol Chem 290:6913-24
Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Dizhoor, Alexander M (2015) Dimerization Domain of Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Is an Essential Part of Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Protein (GCAP) Binding Interface. J Biol Chem 290:19584-96
Boye, Sanford L; Peterson, James J; Choudhury, Shreyasi et al. (2015) Gene Therapy Fully Restores Vision to the All-Cone Nrl(-/-) Gucy2e(-/-) Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis-1. Hum Gene Ther 26:575-92
Li, Congmin; Ames, James B (2014) ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹⁵N chemical shift assignments of neuronal calcium sensor protein, hippocalcin. Biomol NMR Assign 8:63-6
Lim, Sunghyuk; Dizhoor, Alexander M; Ames, James B (2014) Structural diversity of neuronal calcium sensor proteins and insights for activation of retinal guanylyl cyclase by GCAP1. Front Mol Neurosci 7:19
Wen, Xiao-Hong; Dizhoor, Alexander M; Makino, Clint L (2014) Membrane guanylyl cyclase complexes shape the photoresponses of retinal rods and cones. Front Mol Neurosci 7:45

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