The postnatal development of both the optical and neural visual systems is dependent on visual experience. Visual experience is defined by the information available in the retinal images in the two eyes. The goal of the proposed research is to extend our previous examination of retinal image quality in one eye during infancy to full binocular viewing conditions. We will examine human infants'visual experience in the context of image clarity and image alignment, which are primarily defined by accommodation and vergence responses and their interaction. These studies will document the emergence of the interaction between accommodation and vergence and their role in the development of refractive and accommodative strabismus. There are three specific aims: i) To understand the normal maturation of the relationship between accommodation and vergence with emmetropisation and growth of the distance between the eyes. ii) To determine the relative bias towards accommodation or vergence accuracy during the critical period of human development. iii) To understand the effects of accommodation and vergence behavior on visual experience of infants and children with high hyperopia or strabismus.

Public Health Relevance

This project will determine how young infants and children manage apparently conflicting focusing and eye alignment demands during typical development. It will also investigate why some children develop refractive or accommodative strabismus while others, with apparently matching visual systems, do not. The goal is to develop intervention strategies to prevent this strabismus and associated amblyopia.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-IFCN-G (02))
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Araj, Houmam H
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Indiana University Bloomington
Schools of Optometry/Ophthalmol
United States
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Barrett, Brendan T; Bradley, Arthur; Candy, T Rowan (2013) The relationship between anisometropia and amblyopia. Prog Retin Eye Res 36:120-58
Babinsky, Erin; Candy, T Rowan (2013) Why do only some hyperopes become strabismic? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:4941-55
Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Sravani, N Geetha; Little, Julie-Anne et al. (2013) Empirical variability in the calibration of slope-based eccentric photorefraction. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 30:923-31
Candy, T Rowan; Gray, Kathryn H; Hohenbary, Christy C et al. (2012) The accommodative lag of the young hyperopic patient. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:143-9
Candy, T Rowan (2012) Which hyperopic patients are destined for trouble? J AAPOS 16:107-9
Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan (2011) Pupil responses to near visual demand during human visual development. J Vis 11:6
Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Candy, T Rowan (2011) The effect of lens-induced anisometropia on accommodation and vergence during human visual development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:3595-603
Candy, T Rowan; Mishoulam, Sylvia R; Nosofsky, Robert M et al. (2011) Adult discrimination performance for pediatric acuity test optotypes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:4307-13
Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan (2010) The sensitivity of the 2- to 4-month-old human infant accommodation system. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:3309-17
Dobson, Velma; Candy, T Rowan; Hartmann, E Eugenie et al. (2009) Infant and child vision research: present status and future directions. Optom Vis Sci 86:559-60

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