Enhancer, promoters, and insulators are regulatory sequences essential for the establishment of specific patterns of gene expression during cell differentiation It is becoming increasingly evident that these sequences, often located far from each other in the genome, interact in the nuclear space over long distances to regulate the establishment of distinct transcriptional profiles characteristic of specific cellular fates. The requirement for loal interactions at specific loci, for example between enhancers and promoters, has been studied in detail. Nevertheless, the extent and function of long-range inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions mediated by these sequences at the level of the whole genome and its role in establishing and/or maintaining specific gene expression profiles is largely unexplored. During the last funding period we have characterized the protein composition of Drosophila insulators and determined the genome-wide localization patterns of known insulator proteins. We have also used 5C/HiC technology to gather data that give us a glimpse into the complexity of the intra-chromosomal interactions mediated by insulators. We are now in an ideal position to carry out the experiments required to understand the role of the three-dimensional arrangement of the chromatin fiber in the nuclear space in the regulation of gene expression. Here we propose to use HiC and ChIA-PET to establish detailed maps of intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions in the Drosophila genome. Preliminary experiments suggest that transcription and insulators collaborate in the establishment of the 3D organization of the genome and we will carry out functional experiments to test this hypothesis. Point to point interactions between enhancer, promoters and insulators will be analyzed by ChIA-PET in order to understand the mechanisms by which insulators control gene expression. The 3D arrangement of the chromatin during S and M phases will be analyzed by HiC and results will be compared to those obtained with interphase cells to understand the possible role of insulators in the control of genome architecture throughout the cell cycle. Finally, covalent modifications responsible for the regulation of insulator activity will be analyzed and their role in mediating specific inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions will be determined. In the end, we hope to define the role of insulators in the regulation of the three- dimensional organization of the genome and its role in different aspects of nuclear biology. This three-dimensional organization may serve as a fingerprint of cell identity that synthesizes the epigenetic status of the cell, and may help to identify the state of differentiated, trans- differentiated or reprogrammed cells for use in human cell therapy.

Public Health Relevance

This study will determine the contribution of the three-dimensional organization of the genetic material in the nucleus to the establishment of distinct patterns of gene expression required during cell differentiation. This organization may represent a fingerprint indicative of the differentiation status of stem or reprogrammed cells used for cell therapy of various human diseases.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01GM035463-27
Application #
8643232
Study Section
Molecular Genetics A Study Section (MGA)
Program Officer
Carter, Anthony D
Project Start
1986-04-01
Project End
2017-03-31
Budget Start
2014-04-01
Budget End
2015-03-31
Support Year
27
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$577,836
Indirect Cost
$204,736
Name
Emory University
Department
Biology
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
066469933
City
Atlanta
State
GA
Country
United States
Zip Code
30322
Rowley, M Jordan; Nichols, Michael H; Lyu, Xiaowen et al. (2017) Evolutionarily Conserved Principles Predict 3D Chromatin Organization. Mol Cell 67:837-852.e7
Hashimoto, Hideharu; Wang, Dongxue; Horton, John R et al. (2017) Structural Basis for the Versatile and Methylation-Dependent Binding of CTCF to DNA. Mol Cell 66:711-720.e3
Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Rowley, M Jordan; Lyu, Xiaowen et al. (2017) Different enhancer classes in Drosophila bind distinct architectural proteins and mediate unique chromatin interactions and 3D architecture. Nucleic Acids Res 45:1714-1730
Jung, Yoon Hee; Sauria, Michael E G; Lyu, Xiaowen et al. (2017) Chromatin States in Mouse Sperm Correlate with Embryonic and Adult Regulatory Landscapes. Cell Rep 18:1366-1382
Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S; Lefèvre, Thierry et al. (2017) Epigenetic regulation of Plasmodium falciparum clonally variant gene expression during development in Anopheles gambiae. Sci Rep 7:40655
Corces, M Ryan; Corces, Victor G (2016) The three-dimensional cancer genome. Curr Opin Genet Dev 36:1-7
Rowley, M Jordan; Corces, Victor G (2016) Capturing native interactions: intrinsic methods to study chromatin conformation. Mol Syst Biol 12:897
Beagan, Jonathan A; Gilgenast, Thomas G; Kim, Jesi et al. (2016) Local Genome Topology Can Exhibit an Incompletely Rewired 3D-Folding State during Somatic Cell Reprogramming. Cell Stem Cell 18:611-24
Rowley, M Jordan; Corces, Victor G (2016) Minute-Made Data Analysis: Tools for Rapid Interrogation of Hi-C Contacts. Mol Cell 64:9-11
Rowley, M Jordan; Corces, Victor G (2016) The three-dimensional genome: principles and roles of long-distance interactions. Curr Opin Cell Biol 40:8-14

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