The conventional framework for understanding reactivity and selectivity in organic reactions fails for reactions influenced by dynamic effects. Our work has identified three types of dynamic effects that we expect to be common in ordinary organic reactions in solution. We propose their detailed mechanistic investigation in diverse reactions.
The aim of this research is to identify experimental examples and develop experimentally-based evidence for each type of dynamic effect. This includes the characterization of observations associated with dynamic effects and the development of new experimental tests for dynamic effects. We also aim to establish examples of these types of dynamic effects in enzymatic and organometallic reactions. Overall, our goal is to provide a sufficient experimental phenomenology to foster understanding, allowing other workers to recognize when dynamic effects play a role in their reactions. Finally, mechanistic studies are proposed with the aim of understanding and controlling selectivity in some important new reactions. The health-relatedness of this work derives from its impact on the understanding of reactions important in the synthesis of medicinally important substances and reactions important in biosynthetic pathways. The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and the manipulation of biological pathways depend on the rational design and control of chemical reactions, which in turn depend on the understanding of chemical reactions. Our research is providing fundamental news ways to understand reactions that should aid in their invention, development, and regulation.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Research Project (R01)
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Synthetic and Biological Chemistry A Study Section (SBCA)
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Hagan, Ann A
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Texas A&M University
Schools of Arts and Sciences
College Station
United States
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Biswas, Bibaswan; Singleton, Daniel A (2015) Controlling Selectivity by Controlling the Path of Trajectories. J Am Chem Soc 137:14244-7
Bogle, Xavier S; Singleton, Daniel A (2012) Dynamic origin of the stereoselectivity of a nucleophilic substitution reaction. Org Lett 14:2528-31
Andujar-De Sanctis, Ivonne L; Singleton, Daniel A (2012) Racing carbon atoms. Atomic motion reaction coordinates and structural effects on Newtonian kinetic isotope effects. Org Lett 14:5238-41
Quijano, Larisa Mae M; Singleton, Daniel A (2011) Competition between reaction and intramolecular energy redistribution in solution: observation and nature of nonstatistical dynamics in the ozonolysis of vinyl ethers. J Am Chem Soc 133:13824-7
Bogle, Xavier S; Singleton, Daniel A (2011) Isotope-induced desymmetrization can mimic isotopic perturbation of equilibria. On the symmetry of bromonium ions and hydrogen bonds. J Am Chem Soc 133:17172-5
Gonzalez-James, Ollie M; Singleton, Daniel A (2010) Isotope effect, mechanism, and origin of catalysis in the decarboxylation of mandelylthiamin. J Am Chem Soc 132:6896-7
Gonzalez-James, Ollie M; Zhang, Xue; Datta, Ayan et al. (2010) Experimental evidence for heavy-atom tunneling in the ring-opening of cyclopropylcarbinyl radical from intramolecular 12C/13C kinetic isotope effects. J Am Chem Soc 132:12548-9
Vanchura 2nd, Britt A; Preshlock, Sean M; Roosen, Philipp C et al. (2010) Electronic effects in iridium C-H borylations: insights from unencumbered substrates and variation of boryl ligand substituents. Chem Commun (Camb) 46:7724-6
Hirschi, Jennifer S; Takeya, Tetsuya; Hang, Chao et al. (2009) Transition-state geometry measurements from (13)c isotope effects. The experimental transition state for the epoxidation of alkenes with oxaziridines. J Am Chem Soc 131:2397-403
Oyola, Yatsandra; Singleton, Daniel A (2009) Dynamics and the failure of transition state theory in alkene hydroboration. J Am Chem Soc 131:3130-1

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