Understanding the origins of protein conformational behavior is a longstanding goal in biomolecular science because protein function often depends upon proper folding, and aberrant protein behavior can lead to human disease. Although much progress has been made, many important questions remain unanswered. Our program focuses on problems that benefit from, and in some cases require, the application of unconventional chemical strategies (involving synthesis of unnatural subunits and polypeptides) in concert with traditional tools of biophysics. One long-term effort involves the development of molecules that fold autonomously to parallel ?-sheet secondary structure in aqueous solution, which represent unique tools for assessing structure-stability relationships for parallel ?-sheet secondary structure in the absence of a specific tertiary context. Proposed studies include a novel initiativ to add a third dimension to autonomously folding ?-sheets by creating "mini-solenoids", which would represent small segments of amyloid-like structure. These molecules are intended to enable us to probe amyloid packing phenomena via powerful solution-phase analytical methods. A second long-term effort involves a focus on coiled-coil interactions. The proposed research includes an effort to apply basic insights on coiled-coil pairing preferences to develop inhibitors of a protein assembly that underlies Streptococcal toxic shock. A third component of the proposed research involves application of racemic and quasi-racemic crystallography to acquire high-resolution insight on structural phenomena that are otherwise difficult or impossible to study. We propose to use racemic crystallography to characterize homo- and heterotypic associations involving transmembrane helix segments of cell-surface receptors. Such information is currently inaccessible, which hinders our understanding of signal transduction mechanisms. We propose to use quasi-racemic crystallography to identify guidelines for mimicking protein structural motifs with backbones that contain unnatural subunits. These studies could lay a foundation for rational engineering of novel biomedical agents.

Public Health Relevance

Proteins carry out most molecular-level tasks in living systems, and protein function usually depends on adoption of the proper shape. Our research is intended to reveal the factors that control common structural motifs in normal proteins, to elucidate the origins of improper protein folding (amyloid formation), and to establish guidelines for the design of protein-like molecules that might ultimately have therapeutic uses.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01GM061238-15
Application #
8664868
Study Section
Synthetic and Biological Chemistry B Study Section (SBCB)
Program Officer
Smith, Ward
Project Start
2000-06-01
Project End
2016-05-31
Budget Start
2014-06-01
Budget End
2015-05-31
Support Year
15
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$345,387
Indirect Cost
$105,595
Name
University of Wisconsin Madison
Department
Chemistry
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
161202122
City
Madison
State
WI
Country
United States
Zip Code
53715
Kreitler, Dale F; Mortenson, David E; Forest, Katrina T et al. (2016) Effects of Single α-to-β Residue Replacements on Structure and Stability in a Small Protein: Insights from Quasiracemic Crystallization. J Am Chem Soc 138:6498-505
Fu, Li; Wang, Zhuguang; Psciuk, Brian T et al. (2015) Characterization of Parallel β-Sheets at Interfaces by Chiral Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy. J Phys Chem Lett 6:1310-5
Mortenson, David E; Steinkruger, Jay D; Kreitler, Dale F et al. (2015) High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:13144-9
Hayouka, Zvi; Thomas, Nicole C; Mortenson, David E et al. (2015) Quasiracemate Crystal Structures of Magainin 2 Derivatives Support the Functional Significance of the Phenylalanine Zipper Motif. J Am Chem Soc 137:11884-7
Kung, Vanessa M; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Gellman, Samuel H (2015) Impact of Strand Number on Parallel β-Sheet Stability. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 54:14336-9
Maynard, Stacy J; Almeida, Aaron M; Yoshimi, Yasuharu et al. (2014) New charge-bearing amino acid residues that promote β-sheet secondary structure. J Am Chem Soc 136:16683-8
Laaser, Jennifer E; Skoff, David R; Ho, Jia-Jung et al. (2014) Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation reveals structure and dynamics of a surface-bound peptide. J Am Chem Soc 136:956-62
Johnson, Lisa M; Gellman, Samuel H (2013) α-Helix mimicry with α/β-peptides. Methods Enzymol 523:407-29
Hayouka, Zvi; Mortenson, David E; Kreitler, Dale F et al. (2013) Evidence for phenylalanine zipper-mediated dimerization in the X-ray crystal structure of a magainin 2 analogue. J Am Chem Soc 135:15738-41
Mortenson, David E; Kreitler, Dale F; Yun, Hyun Gi et al. (2013) Evidence for small-molecule-mediated loop stabilization in the structure of the isolated Pin1 WW domain. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 69:2506-12

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