The sulfinic acid reductase, sulfiredoxin (Srx), was recently identified as the enzyme in yeast responsible for the reduction of the sulfinic acid moiety (Cys-SO2-) within several oxidatively-inactivated peroxiredoxins (Prxs). This discovery shattered the dogma of the irreversibility of overoxidation for the Prx enzyme family. Moreover, the ATP- and Mg2+-dependent repair or """"""""retroreduction"""""""" of the overoxidized Prxs may modulate the role of these enzymes as regulators of hydrogen peroxide-mediated intracellular signaling. Based on the analysis of the in vivo oxidation state for a variety of human Prxs, repair of different Prx isoforms by Srx appears to proceed at different rates, in spite of their high overall degree of sequence identity. Our recent structure determinations of human Srx in complex with either phosphate or ADP have revealed a new protein fold and a novel nucleotide binding motif. Other preliminary data have confirmed some aspects of the proposed scheme for yeast Srx action, although several surprises in our results (the isolation of a disulfide-bonded rather than thiosulfinate-linked intermediate, and the reduction of the Srx:Prx complex by glutathione rather than thioredoxin) have suggested that further investigation is required. The goals of this proposal are: to determine the crystal structures of human Srx in complex with cofactors and human Prxs (Aim 1);and to carry out steady-state and partial turnover experiments coupled with site-directed mutagenesis to elucidate the nature and reaction rates of intermediates, and to characterize residues critical to catalysis (Aims 2 &3). These investigations will contribute significantly to our understanding of the molecular origins of sulfinic acid reductase action and the novel sulfur chemistry involved in this process.

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National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
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Macromolecular Structure and Function C Study Section (MSFC)
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Anderson, Vernon
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Wake Forest University Health Sciences
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