Prodiginines are a family of linear and cyclic oligopyrrole red-pigmented antibiotics produced by actinomycetes and other eubacteria. Members of this class of antibiotics have been known for some time, as have their broad antifungal, antibacterial activity. There has been a dramatic interest in recent years in these natural products as they appear to have pronounced antimalarial, anticancer and immunosuppressant activity. We have used a series of genetic and biochemical experiments to reveal that a cluster of 23 red genes in Streptomyces coelicolor genome encode a fascinating and unusual pathway leading to formation of undecylprodiginine and a cyclized derivative, streptorubin B. The initial stages of this process involve a complex interface with fatty acid biosynthesis which will be further investigated in specific aim 1. Subsequent stages involve numerous multifunctional and monofunctional proteins with unusual architecture and catalytic activities and specific aims 2-4 will be a continuation of our studies on these. Our preliminary work has also demonstrated that we can generate novel cyclic and linear prodiginine analogues in S. coelicolor by either feeding analogues of pathway intermediates to the appropriate blocked mutants, or creation of hybrid biosynthetic pathways (exchanging Red proteins with proteins of similar catalytic activity but different substrate specificities).
Specific aim 5 will build on these successes generating additional novel prodiginine structures and evaluating their biological activity in antimalarial, immunosuppressant, anticancer and antifungal assays. A wide array of chemical, genetic and biochemical approaches will be used for these 5 specific aims which address our long term objective of a) building a comprehensive understanding of the enzymology of prodiginine biosynthetic pathways and b) using this knowledge to generate novel linear and cyclic prodiginines structures for potential application in human health. Lay Language Description. Some bacteria produce bright red pigments (prodiginines) which show promise for numerous human health applications including cancer treatment, fighting malaria and other infectious diseases, and helping organ transplant patients. This work will identify how these prodiginines are made by the bacteria and use this knowledge to generate and identify new prodiginines with the correct chemical properties and biological activities for possible clinical development.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
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Synthetic and Biological Chemistry B Study Section (SBCB)
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Jones, Warren
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Portland State University
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Singh, Renu; Reynolds, Kevin A (2016) Identification and Characterization of FabA from the Type II Fatty Acid Synthase of Streptomyces coelicolor. J Nat Prod 79:240-3
Kancharla, Papireddy; Kelly, Jane Xu; Reynolds, Kevin A (2015) Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Tambjamines and B-Ring Functionalized Prodiginines as Potent Antimalarials. J Med Chem 58:7286-309
Singh, Renu; Reynolds, Kevin A (2015) Characterization of FabG and FabI of the Streptomyces coelicolor dissociated fatty acid synthase. Chembiochem 16:631-40
Salem, Shaimaa M; Kancharla, Papireddy; Florova, Galina et al. (2014) Elucidation of final steps of the marineosins biosynthetic pathway through identification and characterization of the corresponding gene cluster. J Am Chem Soc 136:4565-74
Challis, Gregory L (2014) Exploitation of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) genome sequence for discovery of new natural products and biosynthetic pathways. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 41:219-32
Kancharla, Papireddy; Lu, Wanli; Salem, Shaimaa M et al. (2014) Stereospecific synthesis of 23-hydroxyundecylprodiginines and analogues and conversion to antimalarial premarineosins via a Rieske oxygenase catalyzed bicyclization. J Org Chem 79:11674-89
Barry, Sarah M; Challis, Gregory L (2013) Mechanism and Catalytic Diversity of Rieske Non-Heme Iron-Dependent Oxygenases. ACS Catal 3:
Sydor, Paulina K; Challis, Gregory L (2012) Oxidative tailoring reactions catalyzed by nonheme iron-dependent enzymes: streptorubin B biosynthesis as an example. Methods Enzymol 516:195-218
Singh, Renu; Mo, SangJoon; Florova, Galina et al. (2012) Streptomyces coelicolor RedP and FabH enzymes, initiating undecylprodiginine and fatty acid biosynthesis, exhibit distinct acyl-CoA and malonyl-acyl carrier protein substrate specificities. FEMS Microbiol Lett 328:32-8
Papireddy, Kancharla; Smilkstein, Martin; Kelly, Jane Xu et al. (2011) Antimalarial activity of natural and synthetic prodiginines. J Med Chem 54:5296-306

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