Rapidly dividing cells must produce 2,000 new ribosomes every minute, and ensure that they are fully functional. Escape of incompletely assembled ribosomes into the translating pool has been suggested to underlie the high cancer incidence observed in patients suffering from Diamond Blackfan Anemia, 5q- syndrome and congenital asplenia. These considerations suggest that in healthy cells mechanisms must be in place to ensure that only correctly assembled ribosomes are released into the translating pool. In the previous funding period, we have discovered such a quality control mechanism, which uses the translational machinery to test the functionality of assembling 40S subunits: Pre-40S subunits are joined by mature 60S subunits in a reaction promoted by the translation factor eIF5B. Assembly factors dissociate from these 80S-like ribosomes, which do not produce protein, as they do not contain mRNA or tRNA. Release of assembling subunits into the translating pool is gated by the termination factors Rli1 and Dom34. However, exactly how progression of this cascade is linked to successful completion of functional tests is unknown, as is the mechanism by which assembly factors are released from 80S-like ribosomes. Here we address the hypothesis that assembly factors and translation factors cooperate to release assembly factors, and induce conformational changes in assembling ribosomes that are akin to those that underlie its function during translation.
In Aim 1 we will dissect how the ATPase activity of the assembly factor Rio2 is used to trigger conformational changes in pre- 40S subunits that allow for joining of 60S subunits.
In Aim 2 we will test how the translation factor eIF5B is used to release the assembly factor Rio2 from pre-40S subunits.
In Aim 3 we will discern how the assembly factor Fap7 and the translation factor eEF2 cooperate to promote conformational changes used during translation for the translocation of tRNA and mRNA. These experiments take advantage findings and reagents produced during the last funding period, and use a unique combination of genetic, biochemical and structural experiments to address these fundamental questions.

Public Health Relevance

Translational fidelity depends on the structural integrity of the ribosome. This proposal is aimed at further uncovering and dissecting a quality control pathway during 40S maturation that uses the translational machinery to test assembling subunits for their functionality.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Research Project (R01)
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Molecular Genetics A Study Section (MGA)
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Bender, Michael T
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Scripps Florida
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Collins, Jason C; Ghalei, Homa; Doherty, Joanne R et al. (2018) Ribosome biogenesis factor Ltv1 chaperones the assembly of the small subunit head. J Cell Biol 217:4141-4154
Ferretti, Max Berman; Barre, Jennifer Louise; Karbstein, Katrin (2018) Translational Reprogramming Provides a Blueprint for Cellular Adaptation. Cell Chem Biol 25:1372-1379.e3
Ghalei, Homa; Trepreau, Juliette; Collins, Jason C et al. (2017) The ATPase Fap7 Tests the Ability to Carry Out Translocation-like Conformational Changes and Releases Dim1 during 40S Ribosome Maturation. Mol Cell 67:990-1000.e3
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