Genes)are)distributed)non-randomly)across)the)genome.)One)intriguing)pattern)to) emerge)from)genome-wide)expression)profiling)is)that)genes)with)sex-biased) expression)(that)is,)genes)that)are)differentially)expressed)between)the)sexes))show) a)biased)distribution)on)sex)chromosomes.)In)particular,)male-biased)genes)are) depleted)from)the)Drosophila)X)chromosome,)such)that)the)X)has)become) demasculinized.)The)deficiency)of)male-biased)genes)can)partly)be)explained)by) movement)of)male)genes)off)the)X)chromosome.)The)evolutionary)forces)underlying) these)patterns)are)controversial)and)may)involve)male)germline)X)inactivation,) sexual)antagonism)or)dosage)compensation)mechanisms.)Drosophila)miranda)-)a) species)for)which)we)recently)generated)a)de)novo)genome)sequence)assembly)-)has) a)newly)formed)sex)chromosome)system.)Its)neo-Y)chromosome)is)in)transition) from)an)ordinary)autosome)to)a)degenerate)Y.)In)response,)the)neo-X)is)evolving)the) stereotypical)properties)of)a)differentiated)X,)including)the)acquisition)of)partial) dosage)compensation)and)-)as)suggested)by)preliminary)data-an)excess)of)gene) translocations)originating)from)its)neo-X.)D.)miranda)therefore)provides)a)unique) system)to)study)the)mechanisms)of)gene)trafficking)on)an)evolving)X)chromosome) and)its)evolutionary)causes)in)action)using)a)comparative)and)functional)genomics) approach.)

Public Health Relevance

Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating, and is often associated with genes that are expressed in testis. Comparative genome analysis has shown that testis genes show rapid turnover between species (that is, many novel genes unique to humans show testis-specific expression) and often avoiding linkage to sex chromosomes. We will use the model species Drosophila to investigate the underlying causes for the rapid evolution of testis genes and their biased distribution in the genome, which will help to understand male infertility associated with defects in testis genes.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01GM093182-03
Application #
8231546
Study Section
Genetic Variation and Evolution Study Section (GVE)
Program Officer
Eckstrand, Irene A
Project Start
2010-03-01
Project End
2014-02-28
Budget Start
2012-03-01
Budget End
2013-02-28
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$292,112
Indirect Cost
$99,062
Name
University of California Berkeley
Department
Biology
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
124726725
City
Berkeley
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
94704
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Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris (2014) De novo transcriptome assembly reveals sex-specific selection acting on evolving neo-sex chromosomes in Drosophila miranda. BMC Genomics 15:241
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Vicoso, Beatriz; Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris (2013) Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6453-8
Bachtrog, Doris (2013) Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration. Nat Rev Genet 14:113-24

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