Kdp is an ATP-driven K+ pump from bacteria and archae that is a primordial member of the family of P-type ATPases. Like all P-type ATPases, Kdp has an important role in maintaining intracellular ion concentrations, and establishing a membrane gradient that is used for secondary transport processes, and in bacteria for turgor and for cell shape. Kdp has a unique architecture consisting of four subunits (KdpFABC), in which key mechanistic elements for K+ transport and ATP hydrolysis are segregated onto distinct subunits: KdpA and KdpB, respectively. This architecture contrasts markedly from other P-type ATPases, in which these elements are integrated into a single polypeptide chain. The additional Kdp subunits (KdpC and KdpF) are single-pass membrane proteins that resemble regulatory elements of eukaryotic P-type ATPases, such as phospholamban, sarcolipin and sarcolemman. This application seeks to define the structural and mechanistic bases for energy coupling by Kdp. Preliminary results include two crystal forms of the Kdp complex, which have produced X-ray diffraction beyond 3.5 ? resolution and 2D crystals of Kdp in an alternate conformation which have been imaged by cryo-EM. We have also established functional assays for ATPase activity and K+ transport, which will be used to evaluate the functional effects of site-directed mutations.
For Aim 1, we will study the architecture of the Kdp complex and the functional relevance of subunit contacts. We will initially focus on obtaining an atomic structure of the Kdp complex by X-ray crystallography. Our primary strategy is to use seleno-methionine substituted crystals for SAD phasing and we will use a variety of approaches to improve the resolution of diffraction from existing crystal forms, including optimized conditions for purificaton and addition of ligands to increase crystal order. In order to evaluate the functional relevance of subunit interactions seen in this structure, we will make mutations to residues at subunit interfaces and use a cell-based assay to test the viability of the resulting Kdp mutants. We will also place cysteine residues on apposing sides of the interface and test for the ability to crosslink the subunits.
For Aim 2, we will study conformational changes in Kdp and address whether individual subunit interactions are dynamic or static during transport. We will use assays for ATPase activity and K+ transport to study energy coupling in the mutants identified in Aim 1. We will also use cryo-EM to determine a structure of Kdp from 2D, membrane-bound crystals. Crystallization conditions indicate that structures from 3D crystals by X-ray and from 2D crystals by cryo-EM will represent alternative conformations with respect to the reaction cycle. This work will test two main hypotheses: that ATP- dependent conformational changes in KdpB are physically coupled to ion gates in KdpA in order to control K+ transport, and that KdpC and KdpF subunits interact with KdpB and control its conformational changes. Given the similarity of KdpA with secondary transporters and K+ channels, this work will also help define mechanistic boundaries and evolutionary relationships between pumps, transporters and channels.
We will solve the structure of the Kdp complex and use functional analyses to understand its unique mechanisms for coupling the energy of ATP hydrolysis to potassium import by bacteria. This study will help define related mechanisms of ion transport that maintain homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells and will explore the evolutionary relationship between three broad classes of membrane proteins, known as pumps, transporters and channels.