In this revised application, the Principal Investigator describes a four-year research program to examine the role of six socioculural factors--machismo, homophobia, family cohesion, sexual silence, poverty, and racism--hypothesized as major barriers to safer sex practices among Latino homosexual/bisexual men in the United States. Qualitative, quantitative, and pilot intervention data will be collected from men who represent three major ethnic groups in three US urban centers highly impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic: Puerto Ricans in New York; Mexicans in Los Angeles, and Cubans in Miami. The research program consists of three interrelated studies that will form the knowledge base needed to conduct culturally-relevant and subgroup-targeted HIV prevention interventions with the vulnerable Latino population. Study #1 is a qualitative effort to expand and elaborate upon the sociocultural model of HIV risk as applied to subgroups that vary in nationality (Puerto Rican, Mexican, Cuban), acculturation (Predominantly English Speaking; Predominantly Spanish Speaking), and age (<26, >25). Study #2 is a quantitative effort to develop a reliable psychometric instrument and test empirically the validity of the sociocultural model in a representative bar sample of Latino homosexual/bisexual men in the three cities (n=300; N=900). Study #3 is a pilot test of an intervention in which the research, specifically addressing empirically-tested sociocultural predictors of risk, will attempt to reduce the episodes of risky sexual behavior in the subgroup with the highest rate of risk behavior as identified in Study #2. For this third study, the researchers will develop and implement a culturally-relevant, subgroup-targeted intervention and pilot test its effectiveness in reducing risky behavior, in comparison to a safer sex workshop that represent the """"""""standard of care"""""""" for homosexual men in the identified city. By the end of the proposed project, the researchers will have produced and tested an intervention protocol that is theory-based, culturally-relevant, and highly-targeted in both content and population subgroup. Thus the protocol will be ready for expansion and application to other subgroups at risk and ready for large-scale randomized intervention trials to reduce the alarming rates of unprotected sexual intercourse among Latino homosexual/bisexual men.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Research Project (R01)
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Application #
Study Section
AIDS and Related Research Study Section 6 (ARRF)
Project Start
Project End
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University of California San Francisco
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
San Francisco
United States
Zip Code
Wilson, Patrick A; Diaz, Rafael M; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu et al. (2009) Drug use, interpersonal attraction, and communication: situational factors as predictors of episodes of unprotected anal intercourse among Latino gay men. AIDS Behav 13:691-9
Ibanez, Gladys E; Van Oss Marin, Barbara; Flores, Stephen A et al. (2009) General and gay-related racism experienced by Latino gay men. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 15:215-22
Feldman, Matthew B; Ream, Geoffrey L; Diaz, Rafael M et al. (2007) Intimate partner violence and HIV sexual risk behavior among Latino gay and bisexual men: the role of situational factors. J LGBT Health Res 3:75-87
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