All vertebrates have internal asymmetries along the left-right (LR) axis, such as the asymmetric placement of organs about the midline. Correct asymmetric placement of organs is critical for their function, as it allows for proper connectivity within the developing vasculature. While many genes implicated in LR patterning have been identified, we do not yet know how the LR axis is established or patterned, how the LR axis is aligned with the dorsal-ventral or anterior-posterior axes, or how organs obtain their final asymmetric positions. This proposal focuses on two zebrafish mutants, switch hitter (swt) and non-partisan (npt), with distinctive LR patterning phenotypes. swt mutants result in either wildtype or completely reversed organ patterning. Consistent with this phenotype, swt mutants often display right-sided expression of nodal components. We hypothesize that swt functions upstream of nodal to bias the directionality of the LR axis, npt mutants properly establish asymmetric nodal expression, but asymmetric organ morphogenesis is affected. We hypothesize that npt functions downstream of nodal to affect organ asymmetries. We will explore the potential roles for Swt and Npt in two mechanisms implicated in LR patterning: cilia formation and movement, and lateral plate mesoderm cell polarity. We will image heart morphogenesis in live wildtype and npt and swt mutant embryos to lay the foundations for understanding asymmetric organ positioning and the role of npt in this process. We will determine the subcellular localization for Swt and Npt and use mosaic analysis to determine their sites of function. Finally, we will use tandem affinity purification and two-hybrid analysis to identify proteins that interact with Swt and Npt. Relevance: It is estimated that as many as 1/5000 infants are born with LR patterning defects which are often manifested as congenital heart disease (Casey 2000). In this proposal, we plan to characterize the roles of two zebrafish mutations in LR patterning. Since many genes involved in LR patterning have conserved roles in humans, the proposed studies will enhance our understanding of LR patterning and the genetic basis of laterality defects that can result in congenital heart disease.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
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Development - 2 Study Section (DEV2)
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Javois, Lorette Claire
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Princeton University
Schools of Arts and Sciences
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Grant, Meagan G; Patterson, Victoria L; Grimes, Daniel T et al. (2017) Modeling Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects in Zebrafish. Curr Top Dev Biol 124:1-40
Grimes, Daniel T; Burdine, Rebecca D (2017) Left-Right Patterning: Breaking Symmetry to Asymmetric Morphogenesis. Trends Genet 33:616-628
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Pelliccia, Jose L; Jindal, Granton A; Burdine, Rebecca D (2017) Gdf3 is required for robust Nodal signaling during germ layer formation and left-right patterning. Elife 6:
Jindal, Granton A; Goyal, Yogesh; Yamaya, Kei et al. (2017) In vivo severity ranking of Ras pathway mutations associated with developmental disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:510-515
Burdine, Rebecca D; Grimes, Daniel T (2016) Antagonistic interactions in the zebrafish midline prior to the emergence of asymmetric gene expression are important for left-right patterning. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 371:
Jaffe, Kimberly M; Grimes, Daniel T; Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi et al. (2016) c21orf59/kurly Controls Both Cilia Motility and Polarization. Cell Rep 14:1841-9
Grimes, D T; Boswell, C W; Morante, N F C et al. (2016) Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature. Science 352:1341-4
Hjeij, Rim; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Watson, Christopher M et al. (2014) CCDC151 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disruption of the outer dynein arm docking complex formation. Am J Hum Genet 95:257-74
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