While for most people gambling is just an enjoyable experience without major consequences, for approximately 5% of adults, gambling can result in significant problems such as family, interpersonal and financial problems. Existing evidence, including work supported by this application's parent grant (R01HD060072, PI: Martins), demonstrates that PG is multifactorial and that it is influenced by a broad range of variables. However, PG research has been seriously constrained by the absence of longitudinal data and of a theory-driven and empirically-supported etiological model that integrates an array of risk and associated factors. This study integrates a developmental model of PG, Blaszczynski and Nower's Pathways model (so far only examined cross-sectionally) with a context -and intervention-informed developmental model of other risk behaviors (Ecodevelopmental theory). We propose to collect new information about gambling behaviors and PG in two time-points on a high-risk population of 1,100 youth/young adults from two population-based samples of Puerto Rican (ages 17-25) from two sites: the South Bronx (SBx), NYC and San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR) by taking advantage of an ongoing study, the Boricua Youth Study (BYS-R01DA033172, PI: Duarte and R01MH09837, PIs: Alegria, Canino &Duarte), which has been following Puerto Rican individuals prospectively since 2001.
The specific aims of this study are to 1) Estimate: (1a) the prevalence (past year and past three- month) of any gambling, frequent gambling, and severity of PG during late adolescence/early adulthood;(1b) changes in the patterns of gambling and severity of PG over a two-year period when gambling behaviors are known to be undergoing the most changes;(1c) the characteristics of individuals who gamble (age, gender, age of onset of gambling and PG, and family history of PG), determining if PG estimates and characteristics differ between PR and SBx. 2) Examine developmental PG pathways from childhood to young adulthood, specifically (a) the relationship of externalizing, internalizing disorders and related risk factors with PG prevalence and change in late adolescence/young adulthood;(b) the influence of contextual factors (e.g. social support, neighborhood disadvantage) on PG pathways. 3) Understand how PG is related to other risk behaviors also being shaped during late adolescence/young adulthood, by determining different risk behavior clusters involving PG, HIV/STD risk behaviors, school drop-out, and antisocial behaviors. This innovative approach, using state of the art latent variable modeling, focuses on policy-modifiable risk factors within broader risk/resource contexts. By focusing on Puerto Ricans living in two settings we can also examine the important role of environment in PG in an ethnically homogeneous group. The proposed study, by building on existing and ongoing efforts, is a highly cost-effective way of generating unprecedented information about gambling behaviors among Puerto Ricans as well as examining the Pathways model longitudinally.

Public Health Relevance

This is the first study to propose to test a developmentally comprehensive model of the pathways that lead to PG. We propose to integrate a conceptual model of PG (Blaszczynski and Nower's Pathways Model, so far only examined cross-sectionally, that we plan to examine developmentally) with a context and intervention informed developmental model of other risk behaviors, the Ecodevelopmental Theory (ET), using a longitudinal design focusing on a high-risk minority group (Puerto Rican youth/young adults) in two different sites (south Bronx and Puerto Rico).

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1)
Program Officer
Haverkos, Lynne
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Columbia University (N.Y.)
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Public Health
New York
United States
Zip Code
Carliner, Hannah; Keyes, Katherine M; McLaughlin, Katie A et al. (2016) Childhood Trauma and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescence: A Population-Based National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 55:701-8
Posner, Jonathan; Amira, Leora; Algaze, Antonio et al. (2016) Reduced Functional Connectivity within the Mesocorticolimbic System in Substance Use Disorders: An fMRI Study of Puerto Rican Young Adults. Front Behav Neurosci 10:102
Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Andrade, Laura H; Keyes, Katherine M et al. (2016) Exploring the latent trait of opioid use disorder criteria among frequent nonmedical prescription opioid users. J Psychiatr Res 80:79-86
Lewis-Fernández, R; Morcillo, C; Wang, S et al. (2016) Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychol Med 46:1987-2001
Martins, Silvia S; Kim, June H; Chen, Lian-Yu et al. (2015) Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational attainment. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 50:713-24
Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Borges, Guilherme et al. (2015) Investigating dimensionality and measurement bias of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of the largest metropolitan area in South America. Drug Alcohol Depend 152:123-30
Keyes, Katherine M; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie M et al. (2015) Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood? Soc Sci Med 124:132-41
Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth et al. (2015) Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 54:1042-50
Peters, Erica N; Nordeck, Courtney; Zanetti, Greta et al. (2015) Relationship of gambling with tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use among adolescents in the USA: Review of the literature 2000-2014. Am J Addict 24:206-16
Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Martins, Silvia S; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia et al. (2015) The role of drug use sequencing pattern in further problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs. J Ment Health 24:9-14

Showing the most recent 10 out of 48 publications