This application requests support for data analyses/ biochemical analyses - - particularly on foods/food groups/food subgroups/their combinations (patterns)/food preparation methods/eating patterns/food- related urinary metabolites and blood pressure (BP) (hypothesis testing and exploratory analyses) - - in the international cooperative INTERMAP Study. INTERMAP is a basic epidemiologic investigation on the role of dietary factors (foods/macro-/micronutrients)/ their urinary metabolites in the etiopatho- genesis population-wide of unfavorable BP levels, including the even more adverse BP patterns of lower socioeconomic (SES) population strata, particularly African-Americans. The multidisciplinary INTERMAP research effort -- based in Chicago and London -- aims to achieve a major advance on these important issues, in a highly cost effective way, based on its vast, unique, in-hand database for 4,680 men and women ages 40-59 from 17 population samples of diverse ethnicity/ SES/ eating practices in four countries (China, Japan, UK, USA). These high-quality standardized data are from four in-depth multi-pass 24-hour dietary recalls/person with computerization of all reported foods/ dietary supplements classified into 23 groups and 119 subgroups, their conversion into nutrients (total: 83);two timed 24-hour urine collections/person with measurement of 24-hour volume, Na, K, Ca, Mg, creatinine, urea, macro-/ microalbuminuria, 23 amino acids, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic scanning for metabolites, eight BP measurements/person at four visits, height, weight, extensive questionnaire data. In 2003-2008 data were reported on influences of multiple individual macro-/micronutrients /urinary metabolites on BP, and on higher BP of lower SES Americans, and northern compared to southern Chinese.
Specific aims for 2009-2014 involve elucidating influences on BP of multiple foods/ food groups/ food subgroups/ their combinations (patterns)/ food preparation methods/ eating patterns/food-related urinary metabolites. Primary hypotheses are on relation of 9 foods/ food groups to BP. Analyses are also to explore relations of food intakes/ eating patterns to urinary metabolites (metabolomic analyses), and role of these food/ eating/ metabolic factors in accounting for higher BP levels of lower SES Americans, African-Americans, and northern Chinese. Findings are to be used to estimate favorable impact on BP of multiple improvements in eating patterns by populations, i.e., to enhance dietary recommendations for primary prevention/ control of prehypertension/hypertension with consequence sizable reduction in cardiovascular disease risks.
LAY SUMMARY Normal blood pressure is rare among Americans ages 35 years and older. Adverse blood pressure levels are due to prevailing adverse lifestyles, first and foremost unfavorable dietary patterns. The ongoing INTERMAP Study, an international cooperative study of almost 5,000 women and men ages 40-59 from the United States, China, Japan, and the United Kingdom, has been investigating the specific details of the diet-blood pressure link. INTERMAP has already contributed to the current knowledge on the role of several specific dietary factors in influencing blood pressure adversely - - high salt intake, inadequate intakes of vegetable protein, potassium/calcium/magnesium/phosphorus/iron, and also overweight/obesity, excess alcohol consumption. During the next years (2009-2014), INTERMAP aims to focus in detail on multiple specific foods, food preparation and intake patterns, food influences on body metabolism and their relations to the populationwide blood pressure problem.
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