Our long-term goal is to investigate the mechanisms responsible for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) pathogenesis, which will lead to new approaches designed to inhibit GVHD. Emerging data have indicated that the presence of pro- or anti-inflammatory signals in the local environment control naove T cell differentiation into pathogenic or suppressor cells, respectively, which have a reciprocal relationship. Recent data indicate that there is a cellular regulatory network operating at the tissue level to control the decision and fate of naove T cells. The network is created by the interaction of T cell immunoglobulin, mucin-containing type I membrane glycoproteins (TIM family) present on T cells and S-type lectins (galectins) that recognize TIM carbohydrates present on immune system cells and on a wide range of tissue cells. Tim-3 is expressed on differentiated T effector cells with the highest density on pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. Galectin-9 (gal-9) has been identified the ligand for Tim-3, and is upregulated in inflamed tissues. A major function of the Tim-3/gal-9 is to limit immune responses under conditions of tissue inflammation and injury. Conversely, in vivo blockade of Tim- 3/gal-9 interaction increases Th1 cells within inflamed tissues. In contrast to the inhibitory Tim-3 signals on T effectors, gal-9 signals appear to support CD4+25+ regulatory T cell (Treg) generation and function. Our preliminary data indicate that the Tim-3/gal-9 pathway is upregulated in GVHD tissues and on T effector cells. We have found that the Tim-3/gal-9 pathway is a major regulator of GVHD lethality. Surprisingly dichotomous effects of pathway blockade were seen in recipients of unmanipulated vs. Treg-depleted T cell grafts.
Two aims are proposed that will provide insights into GVHD pathogenesis, Treg cell biology, and further elucidate the unique mechanisms by which the Tim-3/gal-9 pathway regulates immune responses.
In aim 1, we will define the Tim-3/gal-9 dependent mechanisms regulating GVHD pathogenesis and severity.
In aim 2, we will devise novel Tim-3/gal-9 based clinically relevant therapeutic approaches to inhibit GVHD early and to augment graft- versus-leukemia later post-BMT.
Our goal is to develop clinically relevant approaches that will facilitate adoptive T cell immunotherapy to treat patients with cancer. The fundamental insights gained from these studies will have broad implications relevant to both cancer therapy and treatment of infectious diseases.
|Sawitzki, Birgit; Brunstein, Claudio; Meisel, Christian et al. (2014) Prevention of graft-versus-host disease by adoptive T regulatory therapy is associated with active repression of peripheral blood Toll-like receptor 5 mRNA expression. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20:173-82|
|Dubovsky, Jason A; Flynn, Ryan; Du, Jing et al. (2014) Ibrutinib treatment ameliorates murine chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Clin Invest 124:4867-76|
|Lin, Kaifeng Lisa; Fulton, LeShara M; Berginski, Matthew et al. (2014) Intravital imaging of donor allogeneic effector and regulatory T cells with host dendritic cells during GVHD. Blood 123:1604-14|
|Ding, Zhi-Chun; Lu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Miao et al. (2014) Immunosuppressive myeloid cells induced by chemotherapy attenuate antitumor CD4+ T-cell responses through the PD-1-PD-L1 axis. Cancer Res 74:3441-53|
|May, Sarah L; Zhou, Qing; Lewellen, Mitzi et al. (2014) Nfatc2 and Tob1 have non-overlapping function in T cell negative regulation and tumorigenesis. PLoS One 9:e100629|
|Ganguly, Sudipto; Ross, Duncan B; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela et al. (2014) Donor CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are necessary for posttransplantation cyclophosphamide-mediated protection against GVHD in mice. Blood 124:2131-41|
|Saha, Asim; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Taylor, Patricia A et al. (2013) Host programmed death ligand 1 is dominant over programmed death ligand 2 expression in regulating graft-versus-host disease lethality. Blood 122:3062-73|
|Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Saha, Asim; Tolar, Jakub et al. (2013) Inhibiting retinoic acid signaling ameliorates graft-versus-host disease by modifying T-cell differentiation and intestinal migration. Blood 122:2125-34|
|Gleason, Michelle K; Lenvik, Todd R; McCullar, Valarie et al. (2012) Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9. Blood 119:3064-72|
|Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Lin, Jiqiang; Scher, Jose et al. (2012) Scaffold protein Disc large homolog 1 is required for T-cell receptor-induced activation of regulatory T-cell function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1625-30|
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