The prevalence of adolescent obesity is high in the U.S., and in Latin America. While dramatic environmental changes in the food and physical environment are associated with increased risk, there continues to be inadequate understanding of the individual, family and community level factors that protect against the development of obesity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms leading to disparate risk for obesity in low-income and Hispanic/Latino youth. The proposed 5-year project aims to elucidate interconnected biological and social pathways associated with adolescent obesity and risk for later development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This application involves approximately 620 Chilean adolescents, assessed in infancy, 3 to 5 years and 10 years as part of a NIH-supported cohort study of the behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron deficiency anemia in infancy (n = 1645). As such, detailed longitudinal data related to growth, health and development have been collected. At 16 to 17 years, the youth will participate in study of activity, sleep and eating patterns using actigraphic recording and laboratory assessment of eating behavior. In addition, we will measure anthropometry, fat and muscle mass (DXA), fasting glucose, insulin (HOMA IR), lipids, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, orexin, CRP, and TNF alpha. Detailed information about family history, smoking, health, and psychosocial functioning will also be collected. Neighborhood level factors such as crime, walk ability and resources for physical activity and healthful food attributes will be assessed. Furthermore, a sizeable subset (n = 237) with sleep neurophysiology and actigraphic recordings at multiple time points will participate in 2-night polysmnographic sleep study at 16 years. Guided by a life-course approach, we propose to investigate three Specific Aims:
Specific Aim 1 - To evaluate biological and psychosocial determinants of obesity and related metabolic disturbance in a cohort of adolescents followed since early infancy.
Specific Aim 2 - To assess associations between obesity/adiposity and biomarkers of adiposity-related metabolic disturbance in this sample of Chilean adolescents.
Specific Aim 3 - To assess the role of circadian patterns of physical activity, sleep and eating behavior on adiposity and related metabolic disturbance. The long standing collaboration between the Institute for Nutrition and Technology at the University of Chile and the Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan provides an outstanding environment to study biological and psychosocial determinants of adolescent obesity in a low- to middle-income cohort of Latin American youth who are very similar in obesity risk to comparable U.S. youth. We expect to advance understanding of how developmental patterns of eating and activity are influenced by early life factors and in turn influence the development of obesity and related metabolic disturbance. Our study is unique in the depth and breadth of longitudinal psychosocial and biological data. We propose research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and has the potential to reveal important determinants of adolescent obesity for future intervention research. PUBLIC HEATLH

Public Health Relevance

Adolescent obesity develops during childhood in response to biological factors and social conditions. While biological factors such as genetic inheritance are difficult to change, social factors could be targets for preventive efforts. We expect to further understanding of the environmental and social conditions related to the development of obesity in a high risk urban, Hispanic/Latino population. We are interested in how children develop circadian rhythms related to eating, sleeping and activity, and subsequently how these patterns lead to obesity. Our goal is to unveil modifiable conditions in order to prevent obesity and related diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01HL088530-04
Application #
8129662
Study Section
Kidney, Nutrition, Obesity and Diabetes (KNOD)
Program Officer
Aviles-Santa, Larissa
Project Start
2008-08-25
Project End
2013-07-31
Budget Start
2011-08-01
Budget End
2012-07-31
Support Year
4
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$580,149
Indirect Cost
Name
University of California San Diego
Department
Pediatrics
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
804355790
City
La Jolla
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92093
Reyes, M; Burrows, R; Blanco, E et al. (2017) Greater early weight gain and shorter breastfeeding are associated with low adolescent adiponectin levels. Pediatr Obes :
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela et al. (2017) Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Nutrients 9:
Pacheco, Lorena Sonia; Blanco, Estela; Burrows, Raquel et al. (2017) Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean Adolescents. Prev Chronic Dis 14:E93
East, Patricia; Delker, Erin; Lozoff, Betsy et al. (2017) Associations Among Infant Iron Deficiency, Childhood Emotion and Attention Regulation, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors. Child Dev :
Burrows, R; Correa-Burrows, P; Reyes, M et al. (2017) Low muscle mass is associated with cardiometabolic risk regardless of nutritional status in adolescents: A cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort. Pediatr Diabetes 18:895-902
East, Patricia; Lozoff, Betsy; Blanco, Estela et al. (2017) Infant iron deficiency, child affect, and maternal unresponsiveness: Testing the long-term effects of functional isolation. Dev Psychol 53:2233-2244
Vasconcelos, Monica M A; East, Patricia; Blanco, Estela et al. (2017) Early Behavioral Risks of Childhood and Adolescent Daytime Urinary Incontinence and Nocturnal Enuresis. J Dev Behav Pediatr 38:736-742
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela et al. (2016) Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort. BMJ Open 6:e010972
Burrows, Raquel; Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Reyes, Marcela et al. (2016) High cardiometabolic risk in healthy Chilean adolescents: associations with anthropometric, biological and lifestyle factors. Public Health Nutr 19:486-93
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela et al. (2016) Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students. Bull World Health Organ 94:185-92

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