The prevalence of adolescent obesity is high in the U.S., and in Latin America. While dramatic environmental changes in the food and physical environment are associated with increased risk, there continues to be inadequate understanding of the individual, family and community level factors that protect against the development of obesity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms leading to disparate risk for obesity in low-income and Hispanic/Latino youth. The proposed 5-year project aims to elucidate interconnected biological and social pathways associated with adolescent obesity and risk for later development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This application involves approximately 620 Chilean adolescents, assessed in infancy, 3 to 5 years and 10 years as part of a NIH-supported cohort study of the behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron deficiency anemia in infancy (n = 1645). As such, detailed longitudinal data related to growth, health and development have been collected. At 16 to 17 years, the youth will participate in study of activity, sleep and eating patterns using actigraphic recording and laboratory assessment of eating behavior. In addition, we will measure anthropometry, fat and muscle mass (DXA), fasting glucose, insulin (HOMA IR), lipids, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, orexin, CRP, and TNF alpha. Detailed information about family history, smoking, health, and psychosocial functioning will also be collected. Neighborhood level factors such as crime, walk ability and resources for physical activity and healthful food attributes will be assessed. Furthermore, a sizeable subset (n = 237) with sleep neurophysiology and actigraphic recordings at multiple time points will participate in 2-night polysmnographic sleep study at 16 years. Guided by a life-course approach, we propose to investigate three Specific Aims:
Specific Aim 1 - To evaluate biological and psychosocial determinants of obesity and related metabolic disturbance in a cohort of adolescents followed since early infancy.
Specific Aim 2 - To assess associations between obesity/adiposity and biomarkers of adiposity-related metabolic disturbance in this sample of Chilean adolescents.
Specific Aim 3 - To assess the role of circadian patterns of physical activity, sleep and eating behavior on adiposity and related metabolic disturbance. The long standing collaboration between the Institute for Nutrition and Technology at the University of Chile and the Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan provides an outstanding environment to study biological and psychosocial determinants of adolescent obesity in a low- to middle-income cohort of Latin American youth who are very similar in obesity risk to comparable U.S. youth. We expect to advance understanding of how developmental patterns of eating and activity are influenced by early life factors and in turn influence the development of obesity and related metabolic disturbance. Our study is unique in the depth and breadth of longitudinal psychosocial and biological data. We propose research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and has the potential to reveal important determinants of adolescent obesity for future intervention research. PUBLIC HEATLH

Public Health Relevance

Adolescent obesity develops during childhood in response to biological factors and social conditions. While biological factors such as genetic inheritance are difficult to change, social factors could be targets for preventive efforts. We expect to further understanding of the environmental and social conditions related to the development of obesity in a high risk urban, Hispanic/Latino population. We are interested in how children develop circadian rhythms related to eating, sleeping and activity, and subsequently how these patterns lead to obesity. Our goal is to unveil modifiable conditions in order to prevent obesity and related diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01HL088530-05
Application #
8314049
Study Section
Kidney, Nutrition, Obesity and Diabetes (KNOD)
Program Officer
Aviles-Santa, Larissa
Project Start
2008-08-25
Project End
2014-07-31
Budget Start
2012-08-01
Budget End
2014-07-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$484,197
Indirect Cost
$71,329
Name
University of California San Diego
Department
Pediatrics
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
804355790
City
La Jolla
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92093
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela et al. (2016) Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort. BMJ Open 6:e010972
Burrows, Raquel; Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Reyes, Marcela et al. (2016) High cardiometabolic risk in healthy Chilean adolescents: associations with anthropometric, biological and lifestyle factors. Public Health Nutr 19:486-93
Cheng, J; East, P; Blanco, E et al. (2016) Obesity leads to declines in motor skills across childhood. Child Care Health Dev 42:343-50
Lee, July; East, Patricia; Blanco, Estela et al. (2016) Parenthood linked to new onset overweight or obesity among Chilean adolescents. Int J Adolesc Med Health 28:225-7
Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia et al. (2016) Weight Status and Physical Activity: Combined Influence on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among Adolescents, Santiago, Chile. Glob Pediatr Health 3:2333794X16674561
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela et al. (2016) Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students. Bull World Health Organ 94:185-92
Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy et al. (2015) Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter? J Child Adolesc Behav 3:
Reyes, Marcela; Quintanilla, Cristina; Burrows, Raquel et al. (2015) Obesity is associated with acute inflammation in a sample of adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes 16:109-16
Burrows, R; Correa-Burrows, P; Reyes, M et al. (2015) Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors. J Diabetes Res 2015:783296
Martinez, Suzanna M; Blanco, Estela; Delva, Jorge et al. (2014) Perception of neighborhood crime and drugs increases cardiometabolic risk in Chilean adolescents. J Adolesc Health 54:718-23

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