Elevation of glomerular capillary pressure is a major risk factor for hypertensive renal injury. Ang II hypertension impairs autoregulation and eliminates P2X1 receptor- mediated vasoconstriction, which is critically important for mediating afferent arteriolar autoregulatory behavior. Impaired autoregulation in hypertension coincides with increased renal cytokine production, such as TGF-2 and MCP-1, which may be involved in hypertension-induced renal microvascular dysfunction. Project 2 will determine the role of these cytokines on afferent arteriolar dysfunction in Ang II infused hypertension. Preliminary data indicate that anti-inflammatory treatment prevents afferent arteriolar dysfunction in hypertension. TGF- 2 inhibits autoregulatory responses. Furthermore, MCP-1 inhibition with CCR2 receptor blockade improves autoregulatory efficiency in hypertensive kidneys. These data support the central hypothesis of Project 2 that hypertension initiates intrarenal inflammatory events that result in afferent arteriolar dysfunction and renal injury by impairing P2X1 receptor signaling. Ang II-infused hypertensive rats will be treated with the anti-inflammatory agents, pentosan polysulfate or mycophenolate mofetil, to inhibit inflammatory processes. Experiments will establish the impact of anti-inflammatory treatment on impaired arteriolar autoregulatory behavior, reduced afferent arteriolar reactivity to P2 receptor stimulation, preglomerular vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ signaling mechanisms and expression and function of ROS and intrarenal inflammatory mediators in hypertensive and normotensive rats. These objectives will be addressed in the following specific aims.
Specific aim 1 will test the hypothesis that hypertension-induced inflammatory processes impair afferent arteriolar autoregulatory behavior in Ang II-infused hypertensive rats.
Specific aim 2 will test the hypothesis that hypertension-induced inflammatory processes impair afferent arteriolar P2X1 receptor reactivity in Ang II-infused hypertensive rats.
Specific aim 3 will test the hypothesis that MCP-1 contributes significantly to the hypertension induced afferent arteriolar dysfunction and impaired Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that occur in Ang II- infused hypertension.
Specific aim 4 will test the hypothesis that hypertension-induced increases in TGF-2 and ROS contribute significantly to the decline in afferent arteriolar function. These studies will provide new mechanistic information linking chronic inflammatory events with suppression of autoregulatory function, impairment of Ca2+ signaling and renal microvascular reactivity to P2X receptor stimulation and they will demonstrate that suppression of inflammatory events leads to improved renal microvascular function and renal protection in hypertension.
This project focuses on determining the mechanisms involved in the autoregulatory and renal microvascular dysfunction that occurs in Ang II hypertension. Our preliminary work suggests a strong link to inflammation and inflammatory mediators playing a causal role in this renal vascular impairment. Understanding the impact of hypertension and inflammation on renal vascular function will provide unique insights capable of reducing hypertensive kidney injury.
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