Aberrant regulation of megakaryocyte development is a feature of both essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Under normal conditions, committed megakaryocyte progenitors proliferate to a limited extent and then give rise to small numbers of differentiated and polyploid megakaryocytes. However, upon acquisition of mutations in key signaling molecules, such as MPL or JAK2, megakaryocyte progenitors expand and lead to thrombocytosis in ET or myelofibrosis in PMF. The specific molecular changes and mechanisms responsible for the extreme differences in the megakaryocyte phenotype of the two disorders are unknown. In this project, we will identify transcriptional pathways that are dysregulated in PMF megakaryocytes and characterize the causes of aberrant megakaryopoiesis as compared to ET megakaryocytes. We will also determine whether small molecule inducers of megakaryocyte differentiation and polyploidization are effective at restraining the proliferation of aberrant megakaryocytes in MPNs. Finally, we will study the mechanism by which these compounds lead to differentiation and polyploidization of abnormal megakaryocytes. Our overall hypothesis is that megakaryocytes in PMF are abnormal because they aberrantly express myeloid transcription factors and that this program can be reversed with small molecule inducers of megakaryocyte polyploidization and differentiation. This work is innovative in that we are the first to comprehensively describe the differences between PMF and normal megakaryocytes at the molecular level. Moreover, we are using innovative small molecules to advance our understanding of MPNs and to develop new targeted therapies. Our work is significant in that none of the JAK2 inhibitors in clinical trials ameliorate bone marrow myelofibrosis in patients:
our research aim ed at identifying the root cause of this debilitating condition will aid in development of new therapies.

Public Health Relevance

Ongoing clinical trials demonstrate that although JAK inhibitors offer symptomatic relief for patients with MPNs, they are not curative. Here we will investigate the nature of the defects of the megakaryocyte lineage within MPN patients. Our research will provide important clues to assist in development of novel approaches to normalize thrombopoiesis and myelofibrosis in MPNs.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Research Project (R01)
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Cancer Molecular Pathobiology Study Section (CAMP)
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Di Fronzo, Nancy L
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Northwestern University at Chicago
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Wen, Qiang Jeremy; Yang, Qiong; Goldenson, Benjamin et al. (2015) Targeting megakaryocytic-induced fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms by AURKA inhibition. Nat Med 21:1473-80
Goldenson, Benjamin; Kirsammer, Gina; Stankiewicz, Monika J et al. (2015) Aurora kinase A is required for hematopoiesis but is dispensable for murine megakaryocyte endomitosis and differentiation. Blood 125:2141-50
Krause, Diane S; Crispino, John D (2013) Molecular pathways: induction of polyploidy as a novel differentiation therapy for leukemia. Clin Cancer Res 19:6084-8