Morphological and molecular alterations in the circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to contribute to the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In layer 3, these alterations include ~20% fewer dendritic spines, the principal site of excitatory inputs to pyramidal (PYR) neurons, and lower expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the enzyme responsible for most GABA synthesis, in parvalbumin (PV)- containing interneurons. Thus, schizophrenia appears to be associated lower levels of both excitation and inhibition in PFC layer 3. In monkey PFC, layer 3 PYR and PV neurons form a local network. PYR-to-PYR cell connections mediate recurrent excitation in the network and the PV-to-PYR cell connections mediate feedback inhibition. The proper weighting of activity in these connections maintains the balance between excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) that allows activity to propagate through the network without either dying out or increasing uncontrollably. E/I balance is maintained in the face of prolonged perturbations in circuit activity by adjustments in the levels of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission through a process termed synaptic scaling or homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP). We propose (hypothesis H1) that the proximal or "upstream" cortical pathology in schizophrenia is a deficit in dendritic spines (and a corresponding loss of excitatory inputs) that is intrinsic to layer 3 PYR neurons. The resulting decrease in network activity evokes HSP signaling mechanisms that persistently increase mediators of local recurrent excitatory inputs and decrease mediators of PV cell feedback inhibition to layer 3 PYR neurons. Alternatively, lower expression of GAD67 in PV cells and reduced network inhibition could be the proximal pathology leading to the opposite pattern of synaptic changes (hypothesis H2). These hypotheses are tested in postmortem studies of schizophrenia (Aims 1 &2), and in proof-of-concept studies in mice with experimental reductions in either PYR cell dendritic spines or GAD67 expression in PV cells (Aim 3). The findings from this "cause-compensation" analysis of PFC circuitry will provide insight into potential targets for new therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia, and how each target should be manipulated. Thus, the proposed studies directly address NIMH Strategic Plan initiatives to use an understanding of neural circuitry and plasticity to develop novel therapies.

Public Health Relevance

Through the use of innovative techniques and an explanatory model from basic neuroscience, the proposed studies provide a powerful strategy for distinguishing between cause and compensation in cortical circuitry alterations in schizophrenia. This distinction is essential for identifying pathophysiologically-based targets for novel therapeutic interventions that either ameliorate the cause or enhance the compensation.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01MH043784-25
Application #
8658842
Study Section
Pathophysiological Basis of Mental Disorders and Addictions Study Section (PMDA)
Program Officer
Meinecke, Douglas L
Project Start
1988-09-30
Project End
2016-04-30
Budget Start
2014-05-01
Budget End
2015-04-30
Support Year
25
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$745,704
Indirect Cost
$247,779
Name
University of Pittsburgh
Department
Psychiatry
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
004514360
City
Pittsburgh
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
15213
Glausier, Jill R; Kimoto, Sohei; Fish, Kenneth N et al. (2015) Lower glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa isoform messenger RNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex in schizoaffective disorder but not schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 77:167-76
Volk, David W; Chitrapu, Anjani; Edelson, Jessica R et al. (2015) Chemokine receptors and cortical interneuron dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 167:7-Dec
Volk, David W; Eggan, Stephen M; Horti, Andrew G et al. (2014) Reciprocal alterations in cortical cannabinoid receptor 1 binding relative to protein immunoreactivity and transcript levels in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 159:124-9
Lewis, David A (2014) Inhibitory neurons in human cortical circuits: substrate for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Curr Opin Neurobiol 26:22-6
Siegel, Benjamin I; Sengupta, Elizabeth J; Edelson, Jessica R et al. (2014) Elevated viral restriction factor levels in cortical blood vessels in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 76:160-7
Kimoto, Sohei; Bazmi, H Holly; Lewis, David A (2014) Lower expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: contribution of altered regulation by Zif268. Am J Psychiatry 171:969-78
Georgiev, Danko; Arion, Dominique; Enwright, John F et al. (2014) Lower gene expression for KCNS3 potassium channel subunit in parvalbumin-containing neurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 171:62-71
Volk, David W; Edelson, Jessica R; Lewis, David A (2014) Cortical inhibitory neuron disturbances in schizophrenia: role of the ontogenetic transcription factor Lhx6. Schizophr Bull 40:1053-61
Volk, David W; Lewis, David A (2014) Early developmental disturbances of cortical inhibitory neurons: contribution to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 40:952-7
Glausier, J R; Fish, K N; Lewis, D A (2014) Altered parvalbumin basket cell inputs in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia subjects. Mol Psychiatry 19:30-6

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