Our primary aim is the development of school-based programs that robustly prevent depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Over the last decade, we have shown efficacious a school-based resiliency program (the Penn Resiliency Program, or PRP) that teaches cognitive arid problem-solving skills to middle-school children. In an initial study with at risk children, PRP participants reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms than matched controls through two years of follow-up (Giliham, Reivich, Jaycox, & Seligman, 1995). The PRP at the two-year follow-up halved rates of moderate to severe symptoms. Over the past five years, we have been conducting a randomized controlled study of PRP using schoolteachers as intervention leaders in three schools (MH52270: P1 Seligman). PRP significantly prevented depressive symptoms through the 24 month follow-up in two of the three schools. During this follow-up period, 19 percent of controls as compared with 10.5 percent of PRP participants scored in the clinical range on structured clinical interviews. Our goal in the proposed study is to increase the impact of PRP as a targeted intervention by adding a parent component and periodic booster sessions. We will select into the study children with high levels of depressive symptoms. These children and their parents will be assigned to one of three intervention conditions. Children in the first condition will participate in PRP. Children in the second condition will participate in PRP and their parents will participate in a 6-session parent program (the Penn Resiliency Program for Parents - or PRPP). The third condition will be a no intervention control. Children in both the active intervention conditions will participate in 6 booster sessions over the first 2 1/2 years of follow-up. Parents assigned to the parent program will participate in 4 booster sessions during this time. As in our current study, school teachers, counselors, social workers and nurses will be trained to implement the PRP. Guidance counselors and school social workers will be trained to implement the PRP+PRPP. We will follow the children for three years, targeting depressive symptoms and other outcomes as reported by children, teachers, and parents. Our primary hypotheses are that I) PRP will prevent depressive symptoms and clinical levels of depression in this targeted sample and 2) the parent component will enhance these prevention effects. We will also explore several secondary hypotheses: among them, the effects on anxiety symptoms, academic achievement, and psychological well-being. In addition, we will evaluate potential mediators of the prevention effect, including improvements in children's cognitions and coping skills, and improvements in parents' cognitions and symptoms. Should our interventions succeed, this would suggest that this program can be used on a wide scale to prevent depression in early adolescence in young people at risk.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
2R01MH052270-06A1
Application #
6470777
Study Section
Risk, Prevention and Health Behavior Integrated Review Group (RPHB)
Project Start
1996-05-01
Project End
2007-05-31
Budget Start
2002-06-21
Budget End
2003-05-31
Support Year
6
Fiscal Year
2002
Total Cost
$509,604
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Pennsylvania
Department
Psychology
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
042250712
City
Philadelphia
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
19104
Siddique, Juned; de Chavez, Peter J; Howe, George et al. (2017) Limitations in Using Multiple Imputation to Harmonize Individual Participant Data for Meta-Analysis. Prev Sci :
Brincks, Ahnalee; Montag, Samantha; Howe, George W et al. (2017) Addressing Methodologic Challenges and Minimizing Threats to Validity in Synthesizing Findings from Individual-Level Data Across Longitudinal Randomized Trials. Prev Sci :
Brown, C Hendricks; Brincks, Ahnalee; Huang, Shi et al. (2016) Two-Year Impact of Prevention Programs on Adolescent Depression: an Integrative Data Analysis Approach. Prev Sci :
Brunwasser, Steven M; Gillham, Jane E (2016) Identifying Moderators of Response to the Penn Resiliency Program: A Synthesis Study. Prev Sci :
Vélez, Clorinda E; Krause, Elizabeth D; McKinnon, Allison et al. (2016) Social support seeking and early adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms: The moderating role of rumination. J Early Adolesc 36:1118-1143
Vélez, Clorinda E; Krause, Elizabeth D; Brunwasser, Steven M et al. (2014) Parent predictors of adolescents' explanatory style. J Early Adolesc 35:931-946
Cutuli, J J; Gillham, Jane E; Chaplin, Tara M et al. (2013) Preventing adolescents' externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program. Int J Emot Educ 5:67-79
Gillham, Jane E; Reivich, Karen J; Brunwasser, Steven M et al. (2012) Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: a randomized effectiveness trial. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 41:621-39
Chaplin, Tara M; Gillham, Jane E; Seligman, Martin E P (2009) Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents. J Early Adolesc 29:307-327
Brunwasser, Steven M; Gillham, Jane E; Kim, Eric S (2009) A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program's effect on depressive symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol 77:1042-54

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