Building on findings from developmental and exploratory clinical studies, the applicant's K08 study provided empirical validation for a specific and stable preschool depressive syndrome. Alterations in stress cortisol reactivity, and observational evidence of negative affect and anhedonia were found, providing biological as well as objective evidence for the validity of preschool depression. The ongoing R01 aimed to advance these findings by investigating sub-types and developmental characteristics of preschool depression in a large community based study population, over-sampled for mood disorders. An exploratory investigation of mania symptoms was made possible by a NIMH supplement. Replication and extension of findings validating preschool depression were established in this independent sample. Further, preliminary evidence of a valid and robust preschool bipolar disorder also emerged. The ongoing R01 study sample represents the largest developmentally and diagnostically well-characterized population of mood-disordered preschoolers ascertained to date to our knowledge providing a rich resource for longitudinal follow-up. This application proposes to continue this investigation of preschool mood disorders by examining the course and characteristics of N=302 preschoolers for 3 additional diagnostic and developmental assessments annually through school age. The proposed longitudinal study will allow the first investigation of mood disorders, from their earliest known onset during the preschool period, to outcomes at late school- age, compared to disruptive and healthy children. This proposal aims to investigate the effect of age of onset, sub-type and deviations in emotional development on course and outcome of early onset mood disorders. While much is known about the longitudinal course of later childhood mood disorders, there is a gap in the database on the continuities and mediators of outcome from preschool to school age. This developmental transition is critically important to the public health because of the potential for earlier and more effective intervention in these chronic disorders during a period greater developmental and neurobiolgoical change. This study sample containing a high proportion of preschoolers with mood disorders and appropriate controls provides an unprecedented opportunity to bridge this gap in the empirical database. Findings would serve to inform the design of future early intervention trials for mood disorders.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Child Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Study Section (CPDD)
Program Officer
Garriock, Holly A
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
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Washington University
Schools of Medicine
Saint Louis
United States
Zip Code
Luking, Katherine R; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M (2014) Kids, candy, brain and behavior: age differences in responses to candy gains and losses. Dev Cogn Neurosci 9:82-92
Suzuki, Hideo; Luby, Joan L; Botteron, Kelly N et al. (2014) Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 53:800-13.e10
Tandon, Mini; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Tillman, Rebecca et al. (2014) Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Severity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschoolers: A Pilot Investigation. Scand J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Psychol 2:37-40
Tandon, Mini; Tillman, Rebecca; Spitznagel, Edward et al. (2014) Parental Warmth and Risks of Substance Use in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings from a 10-12 Year Longitudinal Investigation. Addict Res Theory 22:239-250
Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan et al. (2014) Stress-system genes and life stress predict cortisol levels and amygdala and hippocampal volumes in children. Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1245-53
Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca et al. (2014) Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool depression. Am J Psychiatry 171:768-76
Belden, Andy C; Luby, Joan L; Pagliaccio, David et al. (2014) Neural activation associated with the cognitive emotion regulation of sadness in healthy children. Dev Cogn Neurosci 9:136-47
Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M et al. (2014) Altered gray matter volume and school age anxiety in children born late preterm. J Pediatr 165:928-35
Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L et al. (2013) Structural-functional correlations between hippocampal volume and cortico-limbic emotional responses in depressed children. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 13:135-51
Luby, Joan L (2013) Treatment of anxiety and depression in the preschool period. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 52:346-58

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