Blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is one of the underlying causes of HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). Diminished expression of brain microvascular tight junctions (TJ) is observed in brain tissues of HAD patients indicating BBB injury. During the previous period of funding, we established that activation of small dimeric G-proteins (Rho GTPases, such as RhoA) played a central role in alterations of BMVEC TJ. RhoA inhibition prevented migration of HIV-1 infected monocytes, TJ changes and diminished permeability of the BBB. We identified soluble factors that disrupted the barrier and increased monocyte migration across the BBB. We believe that widespread BBB injury seen in areas devoid of leukocyte infiltration could be due to effects of such small molecules produced by activated HIV-1 infected macrophages on the brain side of the barrier. Thus, pro-inflammatory molecules secreted by HIV-1 infected/activated macrophages and interactions between brain endothelial cells and monocytes are two major factors contributing to BBB abnormalities. In addition, our preliminary data indicated that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? prevented activation of Rho GTPases in BMVEC and monocytes, decreased monocyte migration through the BBB and reduced production of inflammatory molecules by activated macrophages, preserving BBB. Recently, GSK-3? inhibitors were recognized as a therapeutic option for HAD treatment due to their direct neuroprotective properties. However, powerful immunomodulatory effects of GSK-3? inhibition have received much less attention in neurodegeneration. GSK-3? suppression as an anti-inflammatory treatment strategy for BBB injury in HAD is the focus of the current proposal. In this competing continuation, we will investigate the therapeutic potential of GSK-3? inhibition and the mechanisms through which it can curtail BBB compromise by addressing the following questions: 1) How GSK-3? inhibition diminishes monocyte migration across the BBB? 2) Can GSK-3? suppression decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory factors in activated HIV-1 infected macrophages attenuating their effects on the BBB? and 3) Can GSK-3? inhibitors prevent BBB dysfunction in an animal model for HIVE via their anti-inflammatory effects? The proposed works will uncover novel mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of GSK-3? suppression and are highly significant for amelioration of BBB dysfunction in HIV-1 dementia.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01MH065151-09
Application #
7851114
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-AARR-D (05))
Program Officer
Joseph, Jeymohan
Project Start
2001-12-01
Project End
2012-06-30
Budget Start
2010-07-01
Budget End
2011-06-30
Support Year
9
Fiscal Year
2010
Total Cost
$423,418
Indirect Cost
Name
Temple University
Department
Pathology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
057123192
City
Philadelphia
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
19122
Bogush, Marina; Heldt, Nathan A; Persidsky, Yuri (2017) Blood Brain Barrier Injury in Diabetes: Unrecognized Effects on Brain and Cognition. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 12:593-601
Persidsky, Yuri; Hill, Jeremy; Zhang, Ming et al. (2016) Dysfunction of brain pericytes in chronic neuroinflammation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 36:794-807
Gallek, Matthew J; Skoch, Jesse; Ansay, Tracy et al. (2016) Cortical gene expression: prognostic value for seizure outcome following temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy. Neurogenetics 17:211-218
Rom, Slava; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Reichenbach, Nancy L et al. (2016) PARP inhibition in leukocytes diminishes inflammation via effects on integrins/cytoskeleton and protects the blood-brain barrier. J Neuroinflammation 13:254
Watters, Andrea K; Rom, Slava; Hill, Jeremy D et al. (2015) Identification and dynamic regulation of tight junction protein expression in human neural stem cells. Stem Cells Dev 24:1377-89
Persidsky, Yuri (2015) Insights into end-organ injury in HIV infection: dynamics of monocyte trafficking to the brain in SIV encephalitis. Am J Pathol 185:1548-51
Rom, Slava; Reichenbach, Nancy L; Dykstra, Holly et al. (2015) The dual action of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1 (PARP-1) inhibition in HIV-1 infection: HIV-1 LTR inhibition and diminution in Rho GTPase activity. Front Microbiol 6:878
Rom, Slava; Dykstra, Holly; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana et al. (2015) miR-98 and let-7g* protect the blood-brain barrier under neuroinflammatory conditions. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35:1957-65
Persidsky, Yuri; Fan, Shongshan; Dykstra, Holly et al. (2015) Activation of Cannabinoid Type Two Receptors (CB2) Diminish Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages and Brain Endothelium. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 10:302-8
Rom, Slava; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Dykstra, Holly et al. (2015) Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition in brain endothelium protects the blood-brain barrier under physiologic and neuroinflammatory conditions. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35:28-36

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