HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is an important complication of viral infection and a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Although the primary cell types infected by HIV-1 in the brain are macrophages/microglia, and to a lesser extent, astrocytes but NOT neurons, the low numbers of infected cells in the brain do not correlate with the extent of neuropathogenesis observed in HIV encephalitis (HIV-E). Instead, activation of glia through direct infection or their interactions with infected cells, their products, or viral particles, contribute to the severe neuropathological abnormalities associated with HAD. It is becoming increasingly evident that the interplay of factors (cytokines, chemokines and/or viral proteins) released from activated astroglial cells play a crucial role in orchestrating the amplification of toxic inflammatory cascades that ultimately lead to progressive loss of neuronal function. While the previous period of funding was focused on identifying soluble mediators that were involved in the pathogenesis of X4 SHIV/Rhesus macaque model of NeuroAIDS, the renewal will focus on viral &cellular interactive loops in the generation of the neurotoxin, CXCL10, in the context of R5 viruses, with relevance to human CNS disease. Two aspects will be considered for these studies: a) synergistic effect of HIV-1/viral proteins in the induction of IFN-3 inducible neurotoxin, CXCL10 and b) PDGF-mediated neuroprotection against combined toxicity of viral proteins/cytokines &CXCL10. Such a combinatorial approach is consistent with the long-term translational goal of developing novel experimental therapeutics for HAD that will be aimed at mitigating CXCL10 toxicity and concomitant neuronal degeneration in the CNS. Proposed hypotheses will be tested in three specific aims: 1) To examine the synergistic effects of HIV-1 proteins, and pro-inflammatory cytokines on CXCL10 gene expression by astrocytes;2) To investigate the role of PDGF in protection against viral protein/cytokine/CXCL10-mediated neuronal apoptosis &3) In vivo delivery of antisense CXCL10 &PDGF DNA as therapy for abrogating HIV-neurotoxicity in murine models of HIV-1 CNS disease.

Public Health Relevance

This proposal aims to: a) Explore the interplay of vial and/or host factors in mediating astrocyte activation &neuronal dysfunction and, b) Develop therapeutic intervention strategies aimed at reducing HIV neurotoxicity.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01MH068212-10
Application #
8232124
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-AARR-D (05))
Program Officer
Colosi, Deborah
Project Start
2003-04-01
Project End
2014-03-31
Budget Start
2012-04-01
Budget End
2014-03-31
Support Year
10
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$340,641
Indirect Cost
$111,253
Name
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Department
Pharmacology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
168559177
City
Omaha
State
NE
Country
United States
Zip Code
68198
Yao, Honghong; Ma, Rong; Yang, Lu et al. (2014) MiR-9 promotes microglial activation by targeting MCPIP1. Nat Commun 5:4386
Buch, Shilpa (2014) Growth factor signaling: implications for disease & therapeutics. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 9:65-8
Duan, Ming; Yao, Honghong; Cai, Yu et al. (2014) HIV-1 Tat disrupts CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis in microglia via the NF-?BYY1 pathway. Curr HIV Res 12:189-200
Chao, Jie; Yang, Lu; Yao, Honghong et al. (2014) Platelet-derived growth factor-BB restores HIV Tat -mediated impairment of neurogenesis: role of GSK-3?/?-catenin. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 9:259-68
Yao, Honghong; Duan, Ming; Yang, Lu et al. (2013) Nonmuscle myosin light-chain kinase mediates microglial migration induced by HIV Tat: involvement of ?1 integrins. FASEB J 27:1532-48
Duan, Ming; Yao, Honghong; Hu, Guoku et al. (2013) HIV Tat induces expression of ICAM-1 in HUVECs: implications for miR-221/-222 in HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. PLoS One 8:e60170
Yao, Honghong; Buch, Shilpa (2012) Rodent models of HAND and drug abuse: exogenous administration of viral protein(s) and cocaine. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7:341-51
Wen, Hongxiu; Lu, Yaman; Yao, Honghong et al. (2011) Morphine induces expression of platelet-derived growth factor in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: implication for vascular permeability. PLoS One 6:e21707
Buch, Shilpa J (2011) Neuroimmune pharmacology as an emerging curriculum for pre-medical students. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 6:68-70
Yao, Honghong; Kim, Keejun; Duan, Ming et al. (2011) Cocaine hijacks ?1 receptor to initiate induction of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: implication for increased monocyte adhesion and migration in the CNS. J Neurosci 31:5942-55

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