While in the past autism research has often been dedicated to a single core deficit or localized brain defect, growing evidence suggests that autism is a "distributed disorder" involving many genes and neuroanatomical loci, and many neurofunctional and behavioral systems. The resulting need for studies of network organization and brain connectivity is hampered by our lack of (i) a precise understanding of what impaired functional connectivity ("underconnectivity") in autism means, and (ii) a model integrating evidence of abnormal local cortical architecture with evidence of "underconnectivity". Children with autism (ages 13-17 years) and matched typically developing children will participate in neuropsychological testing, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional MRI (fMRI) experiments during performance on two simple sensory tasks (visual, auditory) and a more complex lexico-semantic language task. Event-related fMRI designs will allow us to identify activation peaks in primary visual and auditory cortices, primary motor cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These activation peaks will be further used for functional connectivity (fcMRI) analyses, testing for time series correlations across the brain. According to our overarching hypothesis, reduced activation concordance (reflecting compromised local cortical organization) will be associated with reduced interregional connectivity (functional, anatomical), reduced white matter integrity, and with impaired neuropsychological performance in autism.
Four specific aims will test hypotheses for the autism group of (i) reduced concordance of activity in core activation sites (fMRI), (ii) correlation between functional connectivity (fcMRI) and activation concordance, (iii) correlations of anatomical connectivity and white matter integrity (DTI) with local activation concordance and functional connectivity, and (iv) correlations between imaging (concordance, connectivity) and neuropsychological measures. Establishing links between cognitive-behavioral impairment, local cortical compromise, functional connectivity, and anatomical connectivity will have translational relevance in at least two respects. First, it promises to unite several currently separate lines of neurodevelopmental research in autism that may be the foundation for therapeutic advances;and second, it will provide an approach to characterizing neurofunctionally defined endophenotypes of autism, in support of identifying subtypes of genetic risk within the population.

Public Health Relevance

Narrative Autism is a pediatric health issue of growing urgency. Genetic approaches require the identification of biologically defined subtypes (endophenotypes), to which this project will contribute by examining links between local cortical organization, brain connectivity, and cognition in children with autism, using several types of magnetic resonance imaging.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
3R01MH081023-04S1
Application #
8489812
Study Section
Developmental Brain Disorders Study Section (DBD)
Program Officer
Gilotty, Lisa
Project Start
2009-05-01
Project End
2014-01-31
Budget Start
2012-07-01
Budget End
2013-01-31
Support Year
4
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$92,508
Indirect Cost
$30,630
Name
San Diego State University
Department
Psychology
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
073371346
City
San Diego
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92182
Carper, Ruth A; Treiber, Jeffrey M; DeJesus, Shannon Yandall et al. (2016) Reduced Hemispheric Asymmetry of White Matter Microstructure in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 55:1073-1080
Stewart, Claire R; Sanchez, Sandra S; Grenesko, Emily L et al. (2016) Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 46:1590-601
Abbott, Angela E; Nair, Aarti; Keown, Christopher L et al. (2016) Patterns of Atypical Functional Connectivity and Behavioral Links in Autism Differ Between Default, Salience, and Executive Networks. Cereb Cortex 26:4034-45
Nair, Aarti; Carper, Ruth A; Abbott, Angela E et al. (2015) Regional specificity of aberrant thalamocortical connectivity in autism. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4497-511
Carper, Ruth A; Solders, Seraphina; Treiber, Jeffrey M et al. (2015) Corticospinal tract anatomy and functional connectivity of primary motor cortex in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 54:859-67
Khan, Amanda J; Nair, Aarti; Keown, Christopher L et al. (2015) Cerebro-cerebellar Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biol Psychiatry 78:625-34
Fishman, Inna; Datko, Michael; Cabrera, Yuliana et al. (2015) Reduced integration and differentiation of the imitation network in autism: A combined functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging study. Ann Neurol 78:958-69
Chen, Colleen P; Keown, Christopher L; Jahedi, Afrooz et al. (2015) Diagnostic classification of intrinsic functional connectivity highlights somatosensory, default mode, and visual regions in autism. Neuroimage Clin 8:238-45
Nair, Aarti; Keown, Christopher L; Datko, Michael et al. (2014) Impact of methodological variables on functional connectivity findings in autism spectrum disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4035-48
Fishman, Inna; Keown, Christopher L; Lincoln, Alan J et al. (2014) Atypical cross talk between mentalizing and mirror neuron networks in autism spectrum disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 71:751-60

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