Even though the exact etiological mechanisms are not yet known, there is almost universal agreement that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a biologically-based disorder, involving impaired self- regulation and producing cognitive, motor, social and behavioral consequences. Evidence-based treatments for ADHD focus on reducing symptoms and impairments of the disorder either through pharmacological means, the use of behavioral therapy, or both. Effects from these treatments are difficult to maintain over time (Jensen et al., 2007), and behavioral treatments are viewed as burdensome to implement by some parents and teachers. Furthermore, despite its established efficacy, pharmacological intervention is controversial in society and is viewed as unacceptable to some families. Thus, the need for additional interventions, particularly those with the potential to offer new options to families and to address ADHD symptoms at the level of brain processes, remains pressing. Towards this end, we pursue an exciting new frontier in ADHD research involving the application of an aerobic physical activity intervention for addressing the disorder, as well as its associated impairments. We approach this goal from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining expertise in neuroscience, kinesiology and both biobehavioral and clinical psychology. Importantly, our preliminary work that is based both on a rodent model of ADHD and on human work with children suggests that aerobic physical activity reduces symptoms characteristic of ADHD. Therefore, we adopt a translational strategy, including both human and animal studies, to address five specific aims: First, we examine the effect of aerobic physical activity on hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention as well as cognitive, motor, behavioral, and social functioning in young children (ages 5-8 yrs.) and young rats (approximately 40 days old) selected for the presence of ADHD or ADHD-like symptoms, respectively. Second, we examine the minimal length of physical activity intervention required to produce an effect. Third, we examine the persistence of these effects. Fourth, through animal work, we examine the most likely neural plasticity mechanisms that may underlie the effects of physical activity on hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention through analysis of hippocampal neurogenesis and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels.

Public Health Relevance

There is almost universal agreement that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a biologically- based disorder, involving impaired self-regulation and producing cognitive, motor, behavioral, and social consequences. We pursue an exciting new frontier in ADHD research, applying an aerobic physical activity intervention to address the disorder, as well as its associated impairments. We approach this goal from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining expertise in neuroscience, kinesiology, and both biobehavioral and clinical psychology.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01MH082893-05
Application #
8435468
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZMH1-ERB-C (02))
Program Officer
Friedman-Hill, Stacia
Project Start
2009-05-08
Project End
2015-01-31
Budget Start
2013-02-01
Budget End
2015-01-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$540,583
Indirect Cost
$97,733
Name
University of Vermont & St Agric College
Department
Psychology
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
066811191
City
Burlington
State
VT
Country
United States
Zip Code
05405
Hoza, Betsy; Smith, Alan L; Shoulberg, Erin K et al. (2015) A randomized trial examining the effects of aerobic physical activity on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in young children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 43:655-67
Robinson, Andrea M; Bucci, David J (2014) Individual and combined effects of physical exercise and methylphenidate on orienting behavior and social interaction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Behav Neurosci 128:703-12
Robinson, A M; Bucci, D J (2014) Physical exercise during pregnancy improves object recognition memory in adult offspring. Neuroscience 256:53-60
Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T (2013) Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats. Behav Neurosci 127:311-24
Eddy, Meghan C; Rifken, Katharine M; Toufexis, Donna J et al. (2013) Gonadal hormones and voluntary exercise interact to improve discrimination ability in a set-shift task. Behav Neurosci 127:744-54
Green, John T; Chess, Amy C; Conquest, Cynthia J et al. (2011) Conditioned inhibition in a rodent model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Neurosci 125:979-87
Chess, Amy C; Raymond, Brittany E; Gardner-Morse, Ira G et al. (2011) Set shifting in a rodent model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Neurosci 125:372-82
Hopkins, M E; Nitecki, R; Bucci, D J (2011) Physical exercise during adolescence versus adulthood: differential effects on object recognition memory and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Neuroscience 194:84-94
Robinson, Andrea M; Hopkins, Michael E; Bucci, David J (2011) Effects of physical exercise on ADHD-like behavior in male and female adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rats. Dev Psychobiol 53:383-90
Green, John T; Chess, Amy C; Burns, Montana et al. (2011) The effects of two forms of physical activity on eyeblink classical conditioning. Behav Brain Res 219:165-74

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