Despite their prevalence and public health significance, major unanswered questions exist regarding the mechanisms involved in vulnerability to bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). Social and circadian (24-h) rhythm models of BSD risk hypothesize that mood episodes may be a result of circadian rhythm abnormalities caused by life events that disrupt social rhythms (e.g., bedtimes, mealtimes) that normally entrain circadian rhythms. Recent research also provides strong support for a Behavioral Approach System (BAS)/reward hypersensitivity theory of BSDs. Although research on these distinctive theoretical models has proceeded in parallel, our recent work demonstrates influences of reward sensitivity on social rhythm disruption and mood symptoms, leading us to a novel integration of reward sensitivity and social/circadian disruption in this proposal. Our overarching goal is to use an innovative biobehavioral high-risk design to examine bidirectional influences of reward sensitivity and social and circadian rhythm disruption as risk factors for BSD mood symptoms/ episodes. We will prospectively follow 210 participants (Ps) drawn in part from an existing sample of High and Moderate BAS/reward sensitive Ps at an age of risk for BSDs. We will compare High BAS Ps with a BSD diagnosis, High BAS Ps who have not yet exhibited but are at risk for BSD, and Moderate BAS Ps with no BSD to determine whether reward hypersensitivity influences social and circadian rhythm disruption following the occurrence of reward-relevant events to predict manic and depressive symptoms/episodes. This 3-group design will allow us to test whether reward hypersensitivity and its relationship with social and circadian rhythm disruption are pre-existing vulnerabilities or consequences of BSD, or both. Social rhythm regularity and reward sensitivity will be assessed at baseline. Reward-relevant life events, social rhythm disruption from these events, and mood symptoms/episodes will be assessed prospectively for up to 4 years. Ps will complete a 4-wk ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study including 1-wk baseline, 2-wk high BAS/reward activation, and 1-wk reward-outcome periods to assess bidirectional influences between social and circadian rhythm disruption and reward sensitivity and their synergistic effects on BSD symptoms. In the EMA study, Ps will complete daily measures of life events, social rhythms, and sleep diaries, continuous measures of sleep/wake (actigraphy) and circadian rhythms (skin temperature), and repeated within-day measures of mood, symptoms, and reward motivation. Dim light melatonin onset will be assessed 3 times to determine circadian melatonin phase changes. This research program will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying vulnerability to BSDs and contribute to the development of targeted intervention and prevention strategies.

Public Health Relevance

Knowledge of the mechanisms that lead to vulnerability to bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) is important to the development of interventions to treat or prevent these impairing conditions. To the extent that social and circadian rhythm disruption and hypersensitivity to reward combine to influence risk for BSDs, successful interventions must target vulnerable individuals'reward sensitivity and regularize their social and circadian rhythms The proposed project will use biobehavioral methods to yield insights into the independent and synergistic effects of social and circadian rhythm disruption and hypersensitive reward processing on risk for BSD mood episodes, to inform the development of more effective prevention and intervention strategies.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Emotion, Stress and Health Study Section (MESH)
Program Officer
Avenevoli, Shelli A
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Temple University
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
Zip Code
Cohen, Jonah N; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L et al. (2015) The interaction of affective states and cognitive vulnerabilities in the prediction of non-suicidal self-injury. Cogn Emot 29:539-47
Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L et al. (2015) Cognitive and Emotion-Regulatory Mediators of the Relationship Between Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Frequency. Suicide Life Threat Behav 45:495-504
Pendergast, Laura L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Brown, Christopher et al. (2015) Structural invariance of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) scores in Black and White young adults. Psychol Assess 27:21-30
Black, Chelsea L; Goldstein, Kim E; LaBelle, Denise R et al. (2014) Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry. Behav Ther 45:640-50
Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura H et al. (2014) Self-referent information processing in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders. J Affect Disord 152-154:483-90