Misalignment between the circadian timing system and the sleep/wake cycle produces many physiological problems (e.g., insomnia, sleepiness, cognitive decrements, gastrointestinal distress, long-term health risks), which are often associated with night shift work, early morning work shifts, jet lag, and circadian-based sleep disorders like delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). These health and safety decrements pose a significant threat to personal and public health and safety. Over the course of this grant, we have examined treatments to phase shift (reset) human circadian rhythms in order to eliminate or attenuate circadian misalignment. In doing so, an unexpected racial difference in the size of phase advances (when rhythms are set earlier) and phase delays (rhythms set later) emerged;African Americans (""""""""Blacks"""""""") showed larger phase advances and smaller phase delays compared to Caucasians (""""""""Whites""""""""). These data are consistent with our observation that Blacks manifest shorter endogenous free-running circadian periods (tau) compared to Whites. Shorter periods make it easier to advance, but more difficult to delay. These differences in underlying circadian physiology suggest that Blacks and Whites respond differently to real-world situations of circadian misalignment (e.g., shift work or jet lag), depending on the direction that sleep is shifted. We propose the first prospectively designed studies to examine racial differences in circadian phase shifting and in symptom severity associated with circadian misalignment. There will be two studies. Each study will start with 5 days containing 3 days of an ultradian sleep-wake, light-dark (LD) cycle (4 h forced desynchrony) to determine circadian period. Then, after several baseline days, the sleep schedule will be shifted 9 h earlier (Study 1, Phase Advance) or 9 h later (Study 2, Phase Delay) for three days. In each study, salivary melatonin sampling to determine the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) will occur before and after the ultradian LD cycle to determine circadian period and before and after the days of misaligned, shifted sleep to determine the magnitude of phase shifts. Cognitive performance, alertness, well-being, and sleep quality and quantity will be examined at baseline and during the days of misaligned sleep to determine symptom severity associated with circadian misalignment. We hypothesize that Blacks will have a shorter circadian period than Whites, will phase advance more than Whites in Study 1 (Phase Advance), and that Whites will phase delay more than Blacks in Study 2 (Phase Delay). We also predict greater decrements of waking function, and sleep quality and quantity in Blacks compared to Whites when the sleep schedule is delayed and greater decrement in Whites compared to Blacks when the sleep schedule is advanced. This project will not only expand our knowledge of basic principles of the human circadian clock, but will also inform treatment of circadian-based sleep disorders, and highlight the need to consider race when determining the optimal treatment strategies.

Public Health Relevance

Mistimed sleep with respect to the internal 24-hour (circadian) clock frequently occurs in real-word situations such as shift work and jet lag, is the basis of circadian-based sleep disorders, such as Delayed and Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD and ASPD), and is associated with significant personal and public health and safety risks. Evidence suggests that the circadian rhythms of African Americans may adjust differently in response to mistimed sleep compared to Caucasian individuals, which may contribute to racial disparities in disease and safety risks. This project will help us understand racial differences in the circadian clock, which will improve treatment of circadian-based sleep disorders and recommendations for adjustment to night shift work, early morning shift work and jet travel across multiple time zones.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Research Project (R01)
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Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Emotion, Stress and Health Study Section (MESH)
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Matocha, Martha F
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Rush University Medical Center
Other Clinical Sciences
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Kantermann, Thomas; Eastman, Charmane I (2018) Circadian phase, circadian period and chronotype are reproducible over months. Chronobiol Int 35:280-288
Paech, Gemma M; Crowley, Stephanie J; Fogg, Louis F et al. (2017) Advancing the sleep/wake schedule impacts the sleep of African-Americans more than European-Americans. PLoS One 12:e0186887
Eastman, Charmane I; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J (2017) Sex and ancestry determine the free-running circadian period. J Sleep Res 26:547-550
Emens, Jonathan S; Eastman, Charmane I (2017) Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-24-h Sleep-Wake Disorder in the Blind. Drugs 77:637-650
Paech, Gemma M; Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I (2017) Sleep and cognitive performance of African-Americans and European-Americans before and during circadian misalignment produced by an abrupt 9-h delay in the sleep/wake schedule. PLoS One 12:e0186843
Eastman, Charmane I; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J (2016) Circadian rhythms of European and African-Americans after a large delay of sleep as in jet lag and night work. Sci Rep 6:36716
Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I (2015) Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration? Sleep Med 16:288-97
Eastman, Charmane I; Suh, Christina; Tomaka, Victoria A et al. (2015) Circadian rhythm phase shifts and endogenous free-running circadian period differ between African-Americans and European-Americans. Sci Rep 5:8381
Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I (2013) Melatonin in the afternoons of a gradually advancing sleep schedule enhances the circadian rhythm phase advance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:825-37
Eastman, Charmane I; Molina, Thomas A; Dziepak, Marissa E et al. (2012) Blacks (African Americans) have shorter free-running circadian periods than whites (Caucasian Americans). Chronobiol Int 29:1072-7

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