The changing racial and ethnic makeup of the U.S. will require health professionals to practice with cultural competence in areas such as promotion of physical activity, where cultural beliefs may mediate health promotion behaviors. Although the benefits of physical activity are now widely accepted, midlife women, especially ethnic minority women, have low participation rates in physical activity, and prevalence rates of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, and all-cause mortality among ethnic minority women (that can be effectively reduced by increasing physical activity) have been reported to be much higher than those of White midlife women. A plausible reason for the low participation rate is that the women's ethnic-specific attitudes toward physical activity have rarely been incorporated into relevant interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore attitudes of midlife women from four ethnic groups [Hispanic, Non-Hispanic (N-H) White, N-H African Americans, and N-H Asians] toward physical activity while considering the relationships between their attitudes and their actual participation in physical activity within the ethnic-specific contexts of their daily lives. Data will be gathered via Internet survey and ethnic- specific online forums to allow for a national sample.
The specific aims are to: a) explore in attitudes toward physical activity among midlife women from the four ethnic groups;b) explore ethnic differences in women's participation in physical activity;c) explore relationships between women's attitudes toward physical activity and their participation in physical activity in each ethnic group;and d) explore ethnic-specific contexts of women's daily lives that influence women's participation in physical activity. The Midlife Women's Attitudes toward Physical Activity (MAPA) model will provide theoretical direction for the study. Innovative data collection methods include an Internet survey among 500 midlife women recruited using the quota sampling method with multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet settings, and online forums of 6-month duration among four different ethnic groups (30 members per group). Long-term goals are to: a) develop a knowledge base on ethnic-specific midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity within the ethnic-specific contexts and b) develop a web-based physical activity promotion education program for multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The proposed study will contribute to reducing health disparities, a major public health concern in the U.S., by directing the development of physical activity promotion programs that can serve ethnic minority midlife women through the Internet.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Research Project (R01)
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Nursing Science: Adults and Older Adults Study Section (NSAA)
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Mccloskey, Donna J
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University of Texas Austin
Schools of Nursing
United States
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Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2017) Clusters of midlife women by physical activity and their racial/ethnic differences. Menopause 24:417-425
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2017) Associations of Immigration Transition to Cardiovascular Symptoms Experienced in Menopausal Transition. Fam Community Health 40:357-366
Im, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jinyoung; Chee, Eunice et al. (2016) The relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition: racial/ethnic differences. Menopause 23:396-402
Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok (2015) Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity. Res Theory Nurs Pract 29:177-88
Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice et al. (2015) Physical activity and depressive symptoms in four ethnic groups of midlife women. West J Nurs Res 37:746-66
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik et al. (2015) Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States. Health Care Women Int 36:439-56
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Nguyen, Giang et al. (2015) Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory. Res Theory Nurs Pract 29:10-24
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2015) Cluster analysis of midlife women's sleep-related symptoms: racial/ethnic differences. Menopause 22:1182-9
Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice et al. (2015) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis. Women Health 55:525-47
Im, Eun-Ok; Teng, Helen; Lee, Yaelim et al. (2014) Physical activities and sleep-related symptoms in 4 major racial/ethnic groups of midlife women. Fam Community Health 37:307-16

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