The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all patients should receive information about HIV/AIDS and HIV testing orally or in writing at every HIV testing encounter. However, for busy emergency departments (EDs), delivering information orally is a barrier to HIV testing, and written brochures likely are not useful for those with lower health or general literacy. Videos might be as or more efficacious than orally-delivered information in improving HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, particularly for those with lower health literacy skills. However, the resources required to show videos might limit their use in EDs. Pictorial brochures are a promising alternative, but are of unknown efficacy. Regardless of how patients are informed, we do not know how well or for how long this knowledge is retained, if this information should be delivered according to patient needs and abilities, and if retention of this knowledge impacts future HIV testing behavior. This R01 study will address these gaps in our understanding. We will conduct a multi-site, randomized, controlled, longitudinal trial among 600 English- and 600 Spanish-speaking 18-64-year-old ED patients to investigate these questions. Using a valid measure of health literacy, we will stratify our sample within language by health literacy level (lower vs. higher). We will randomly assign patients to receive HIV/AIDS and HIV testing information by video or pictorial brochure. At one year post-enrollment, we will offer participants an opportunity to be tested again for HIV. As primary aims, we will compare the efficacy of pictorial brochures and videos in improving short-term (in ED) HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge and retaining this knowledge over 12 months. More specifically, we will determine if and how short-term improvement and longer-term retention of knowledge interacts with information delivery mode (pictorial brochure or video), patient health literacy level (lower or higher) and language (English or Spanish). As secondary aims, using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model as a heuristic framework, we will examine components of the IMB model relevant to our study and their interrelationships, their impact on HIV re-testing behavior, and the moderating influence of information delivery mode, language and health literacy level through the model. In regards to HIV re-testing behaviors, we will assess: (1) testing uptake at one year post-enrollment when offered as part of the study, (2) testing utilization during the study period but not as part of the study, and (3) change in testing utilization one year pre vs. post study enrollment. Study findings will guide ED-based delivery of HIV/AIDS and HIV testing information;that is, whether delivery modes (video or pictorial brochure) should be selected for patients by language and/or health literacy level, or whether either mode could be used. The results also will inform EDs when, how, and for whom information needs to be provided for those testing again for HIV within one year.
Efficiently and efficaciously providing HIV/AIDS and HIV testing information is a challenge for emergency departments. These study findings will inform emergency departments if information delivery mode (video or pictorial brochure) should be selected for patients by language and/or health literacy level. The results also will inform EDs when, how, and for whom information needs to be provided for those testing again for HIV within one year, and the impact of these factors on HIV re-testing behavior within one year.